symptoms of tuberculosis in throat

symptoms of tuberculosis in throat

symptoms of tuberculosis in throat  can infect any part of the body, but it usually occurs in the lungs (so-called tuberculosis of the lungs). Extrapulmonary tuberculosis occurs when tuberculosis develops outside of the lungs, although extrapulmonary TB may coexist with pulmonary tuberculosis.

 

 

Common symptoms of tuberculosis in throat include fever, chills, night sweats, loss of appetite, weight loss and fatigue.  There may also be a significant nail stroke. 

 

 

Pulmonary

If tuberculosis infection becomes active, it usually involves the lungs (in about 90% of cases). Symptoms may include chest pain and prolonged cough that produces sputum. About 25% of people may not have any symptoms (ie, they remain “asymptomatic”). Sometimes people can cough blood in small amounts, and in very rare cases, the infection can erode in the pulmonary artery or Rasmussen an aneurysm, causing massive bleeding. symptoms of tuberculosis in throat can become a chronic disease and cause extensive scarring in the upper lung lobes. The reason for this difference is not clear.  This may be due to either better airflow or poor lymph drainage in the upper lungs. 


 

symptoms of tuberculosis in throat

 extrapulmonary tuberculosis

In 15-20% of active cases, the infection spreads outside the lungs, causing other types of tuberculosis. The extrapulmonary form of tuberculosis is more common in people with weakened immune systems and small children. In people with HIV, this occurs in over 50% of cases. Important sites of extrapulmonary infection include the pleura (in tuberculous pleurisy), the central nervous system (in tuberculous meningitis), the lymphatic system (in the neck scrofula), the genitourinary system (in genitourinary tuberculosis), and bones and joints (in Spondylitis Pott disease), among others. Milky TB is currently about 10% of extrapulmonary cases 

 

 

symptoms of tuberculosis in throat

Causes
Mycobacteria

Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Scanning electron microscopy of tuberculosis
The main cause of symptoms of tuberculosis in throat is Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), a small, aerobic, non-cancerous rod.  The high lipid content in these pathogens has many unique clinical features.  Shares every 16 to 20 hours, which is extremely slow compared to other bacteria that usually divide in less than an hour.  Mycobacteria have a bilayer lipid of the outer membrane. In the case of Gram staining, MTB or very weakly “Gram-positive” dyes, or does not retain the dye due to the high content of lipids and mycolic acid in the cell wall.  MTB can withstand weak disinfectants and survive in the dry state for several weeks.

 

 

Using histological stains on sputum samples (also known as “sputum”), scientists can identify MTB under a microscope. Since MTB retains some stains even after treatment with an acid solution, it is classified as acid-resistant rods. The most common acid-resistant dyeing techniques are the Ziehl-Neelsen staining and Kinyoun staining, which dyes quickly acidic rods into a bright red color that stands out against a blue background. Auramine-rhodamine staining and fluorescence microscopy are also used.

 




 

 

The M. tuberculosis complex

(MTBC) includes four other symptoms of tuberculosis in throat mycobacteria: bovis, africanum, Canetti and microtia. africanum is not widespread, but it is an important cause of tuberculosis in parts of Africa.bovis was once a frequent cause of tuberculosis, but the introduction of pasteurized milk almost completely eliminated it as a public health problem in developed countries.  M. Canetti is a rarity and seems to be limited to the Horn of Africa, although several cases have been observed in African émigrés. microti is also rare and occurs almost exclusively in immunodeficient individuals, although its prevalence may be significantly underestimated. 

 

 

 

Other known pathogenic mycobacteria include M. leprae, m. avium, and  The latter two species are classified as “non-mycobacterial mycobacteria” (NTM). NTMs do not cause either tuberculosis or leprosy, but they cause lung diseases that resemble tuberculosis. 

 

 

 

 Risk factors for tuberculosis

Many factors make people more susceptible to tuberculosis infections. The most important risk factor in the world is HIV; 13% of all people with TB are infected with the virus.  This is a particular problem in sub-Saharan Africa, where HIV indicators are high. Of those without TB infected, around 5-10% develop active disease during their lifetime;  while 30% of people infected with HIV develop this active disease.

 

 

 

Tuberculosis is closely related to both overpopulation and malnutrition, which is one of the main diseases related to poverty. People at high risk are those who inject illegal drugs, residents, and workers in places where vulnerable people gather (eg Prisons and homeless shelters), medically poor and poor resources, high-risk ethnic minorities, children in close contact with high-risk patients and providers of medical services for these patients.

 

 

 

Chronic lung disease is another important risk factor. Silica increases the risk by about 30 times.  Those who smoke have an almost twice as high a risk of tuberculosis as non-smokers.

Other conditions may also increase the risk of tuberculosis. These include alcoholism and diabetes (a threefold increase). 

 

Mechanism

Public health campaigns in the 1920s tried to stop the spread of tuberculosis.
Transmission
When people with active pulmonary tuberculosis cough, sneeze, speak, sing or spit, they expel contagious aerosol droplets with a diameter of 0.5 to 5.0 μm. A single sneeze can release up to 40,000 drops. Each of these drops can carry the disease because the infectious dose of tuberculosis is very small (inhalation of less than 10 bacteria can cause infection). 

 




 

 

People with long-term, frequent or close contact with people with tuberculosis are particularly at risk of infection, and the estimated infection rate is 22 %. A person with active but untreated tuberculosis can infect 10-15 (or more) others per year. 

 

 

Diagnosis
 Diagnosis of tuberculosis

tuberculosis (stained in red) in the sputum
Active tuberculosis
The diagnosis of active tuberculosis based only on signs and symptoms is difficult, as is the diagnosis of the disease in people with weakened immune systems. X-ray examination of the chest and multiple sputum for the presence of acid-fast bacilli usually form part of the initial assessment.  Interferon-γ release tests and tuberculin skin tests are of little use in developing countries.  Interferon-gamma (IGRA) release assays have similar limitations in people with HIV. 

 

 

However, the difficult cultural process of this slow-growing organism can last from two to six weeks in the case of blood or sputum. Thus, treatment often begins before confirmation of the culture.

Nucleic acid amplification tests and adenosine deaminase testing may enable rapid diagnosis of tuberculosis.

 

 

 

Prevention

Tuberculosis prevention poster from the United States, circa 1940
Prophylactic and control activities related to tuberculosis are mainly based on infant vaccinations and the detection and treatment of active cases.  The World Health Organization has achieved some success due to improved treatments and a small reduction in cases. The American Task Force on Preventive Services (USPSTF) recommends testing people at high risk for latent tuberculosis with tuberculin skin tests or interferon-gamma release tests. 

 




 

 

vaccines

Tuberculosis vaccine and BCG vaccine
The only vaccine available since 2011 is Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG). [78] In children, it decreases the risk of infection by 20% and the risk of infection changes into active disease by almost 60%. 

 

 

 

Public health

The World Health Organization has declared TB a “global crisis in health” in 1993, and in 2006 the Partnership on Tuberculosis has developed a global TB prevention plan that sought to save 14 million lives from its launch by 2015  Several targets have not been achieved by 2015. Mainly due to the rise of HIV-related TB and the emergence of multi-resistant tuberculosis.

 

 

 Management of tuberculosis

Treatment of tuberculosis uses antibiotics to kill bacteria. Effective treatment of tuberculosis is difficult due to the unusual structure and chemical composition of the mycobacterial cell wall, which makes it difficult to enter drugs and makes many antibiotics ineffective. 

 

 

 

Latent TB has treated with isoniazid alone or a combination of isoniazid with rifampicin or rifapentine. The treatment lasts several months.  People with hidden infections are treated to prevent their progress


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