Ribosomes are a cellular structure that produces a protein. The protein is needed for many cellular functions, such as repairing damage or managing chemical processes. Ribosomes can be found floating in the cytoplasm or attached to the endoplasmic reticulum.
The location of ribosomes in the cell determines the type of protein produced. If the ribosomes move freely within the cell, they will produce proteins that will be used in the cell itself. When the ribosomes are attached to the endoplasmic reticulum, they are referred to as a rough endoplasmic reticulum or an ER-like reticulum. The proteins produced on the raw ER are used for inside or outside the cell. Read below ribosomes function
They accumulate amino acids, creating specific proteins, proteins are necessary for carrying out cellular activities.
In ribosomes function, The protein production process, deoxyribonucleic acid, produces mRNA in the DNA transcription process.
The genetic message of mRNA is translated into proteins during DNA translation.
In ribosomes function, Protein folding sequences during protein synthesis are defined in mRNA.
mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and is transported to the cytoplasm for further protein synthesis.
In the cytoplasm, two ribosomal subunits are bound around mRNA polymers; the proteins are then synthesized by means of RNA transfer.
Proteins synthesized by ribosomes present in the cytoplasm are used in the cytoplasm itself. Proteins produced by bound ribosomes are transported out of the cell.
It is found in two areas of the cytoplasm. They are dispersed in the cytoplasm, and several are connected to the endoplasmic reticulum. When connected to the ER, they are called a rough endoplasmic reticulum. Free and bound ribosomes are very similar in structure and are associated with protein synthesis. About 37 to 62% of RNA consists of proteins.
Prokaryotes have 70S ribosomes, respectively subunits containing a small 30S subunit and a larger 50S subunit. Eukaryotes have 80S ribosomes, respectively containing small (40S) and significant (60S) subunits. Ribosomes observed in chloroplasts of eukaryotes mitochondria consist of large and small subunits composed of proteins inside the 70S particle. Share the structure of the center, which is very similar to all ribosomes despite changes in its size.
RNA is distributed in various tertiary structures. RNA in larger ribosomes undergoes numerous continuous infusions because they form loops off the center of the structure without disturbing or altering it. The contrast between these eukaryotes and bacteria is used to produce antibiotics that can crush a bacterial disease without damaging human cells.
Other Ribosomes function
As mentioned, the function of ribosomes is to create proteins. This process involves transforming our genetic information into proteins as we move from DNA to RNA and finally into protein. We need to consider a few issues in this process. The first of these is the ribosome, which acts as a machine to connect different parts.
Then we have matrix RNA (mRNA), which are RNA strands that contain instructions for building a specific protein. This instruction is translated from DNA, where all protein instructions are stored. Then we have RNA transfer (tRNA), which are RNA strands that carry specific amino acids (building blocks of proteins) to match what’s in the mRNA.
The ribosome acts as an assembly line and begins to “read” the mRNA, find the corresponding tRNA and attach the amino acid to the binding site. Then it reads the next part of the mRNA and finds the corresponding tRNA and joins the amino acid to the existing amino acid. This process continues until the entire tRNA is read and the initial protein is created.
The protein, still unfinished, is removed from the ribosome and sent to the cytoplasm, in the prokaryotic or Golgi in eukaryotes, to completion. When finished, they can start their function.
Rybosom then begins another round of protein synthesis when it acquires another tRNA. This process continues and is regulated based on what protein the cell needs and how much the protein needs.
This is the main reason why ribosomes are found in all living cells: everything needs proteins to function. That’s why they’re very similar between different cells.
Origin of ribosomes
Researchers estimate that the ribosome is about 3.8 billion years old. This is the age that precedes most forms of life. Given the similarity of ribosomes to all living cells, it makes sense for the ribosome to come from a common ancestor between different domains of life.
Researchers analyzed many ribosome samples from different species and looked for a common core deep within the ribosomal structure and identified the oldest parts of the ribosome that were found over 3 billion years.
Loren Williams, the lead researcher at the Georgia Technology Center for Ribosome Adaptation and Evolution of the NASA Institute of Astrobiology, noted that the ribosomes were like tree trunks: they had rings that indicated their age, where the central ring, deep in the trunk, represented the oldest part of the tree.
Initially, the ribosome carries only RNA and no protein, because life at that time did not use proteins. Because RNA strands become large, they form secondary structures that can develop functions. Rybosom was probably in a similar situation. Over time, with the development of protein, ribosomes became more complex and adapted more functions until they became a specialized machine for protein synthesis as it is today.
George Fox, from the University of Houston, notes that the ribosome transition from RNA to DNA and protein compound resulted from the ability of RNA to form peptides of increasing complexity. What began as a process of transforming DNA into RNA became so complex that it made it possible to create other compounds from this information that turned out to be proteins.