The pleura is a raw membrane that folds together to form a bilayer membranous pleural sac. The external pleura (pleural wall) is attached to the chest wall but is separated from the fascia by the endotoxin. The internal pleura (visceral pleura) includes the lungs and adjacent structures, including blood vessels, bronchi, and nerves. The pleural cavity can be seen as a potential space because the two contaminants adhere to each other (through a thin film of serous liquid) under all normal conditions. Fetal pleura function develops up to 2.5 cm above the middle and middle junction of the third part of the clavicle.

Pleura function

The pleural cavity, together with the accompanying pleura, helps in the optimal functioning of the lungs during breathing. The pleural cavity also contains pleural fluid that acts as a lubricant and allows you to swell without effort on yourself during breathing movements. The surface tension of the pleural fluid also leads to a close application of the lung surface to the wall of the chest. This dependence allows greater filling of the alveoli during breathing. The pleural cavity transfers the muscle movements of the ribs to the lungs, especially during heavy breathing. During inhalation, the external interdental muscles contract, like the diaphragm. This enlarges the chest wall, which increases the volume of the lungs. This creates a negative pressure and inhales.


Pleural fluid

Pleural fluid is a serous fluid produced by the serous membrane that covers normal swelling. Most fluids are produced by parietal circulation (intercostal vessels) through mass flow and reabsorbed by the lymphatic system. In this way, the pleural fluid produces and reabsorb continuously. In a normal person weighing 70 kg, several milliliters of pleural fluid is always present in the intrapleural space. Larger amounts of fluid can accumulate in the pleural space only if the production rate exceeds the rate of reabsorption. Typically, the rate of reabsorption increases as a physiological reaction to the accumulating fluid, with the rate of reabsorption increasing to 40 times the normal rate before a significant amount of fluid accumulates in the pleural space. Thus, for the accumulation of fluid in the pleural space, a deep increase in pleural fluid production or some blocking of the reabsorptive lymphatic system requires.



In humans, there is no anatomical connection between the left and right pleural cavities. Therefore, in cases of pneumothorax, the second lung will continue to function normally unless there is a pneumothorax or bilateral pneumothorax that can collapse opposite the flesh, blood vessels and bronchi.

The visceral pleura function receives blood flow from the bronchial circulation, which also supplies the lungs. Parietal pleura gets its blood supply from the intercostal arteries, which also feed the body wall that is going through.

The cervical and cervical parts and the periphery of the membrane part of the pleura innervate with intercostal nerves. The mediastinal portion and the middle part of the diaphragm innervate with the diaphragm nerves. Visceral mold covering the lung itself receives the innervation of the autonomic nervous system and has no sensory innervation. Only the parietal pleura is sensitive to pain.

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