The patella, also known as the kneecap, is a thick, round, triangular bone that connects to the femur and covers and protects the anterior joint surface of the knee joint.


Patella can be found in many quadrupeds, such as mice, cats, and birds, but not in whales or most reptiles. In humans, the kneecap is the largest sesamoid bone in the body. Children are born with the soft-cartilaginous patella, which begins to cure at the age of about three years.

patella functions

The basic role of the patella functions is to extend the knee. The patella increases the pressure of the quadriceps muscle on the femur, increasing the angle at which it operates.The patella attached to the tendon of the quadriceps muscle of the thigh, which contracts to prolong/straighten the knee.


Patella stabilizes with inserting the horizontal fibers of the medial portion and through the convexity of the lateral femoral condyles, which discourages lateral displacement during bending. The revolutionary patellar fibers also stabilize it during exercise.



patella Structure

The patella is a triangle-shaped bone, in the shape of a triangle, with the top of the kneecap pointing down. The top is the worst (lowest) part of the kneecap. It has a pointed shape and attaches to the patellar tendon.


The front and back surfaces connect with a thin margin and a thicker margin towards the center. The thigh of the quadriceps muscle tie to the base of the patella. The intermediate muscle attached to the base itself, and the large lateral and medial muscle adjoining the lateral and medial patellar borders, respectively.


The upper third of the patella is flattened and rough, which used to attach the quadriceps tendon and often has extrusion. The middle third has numerous vascular channels. The lower third culminates in the apex, which serves as the source of the patellar tendon. The back surface divides into two parts.