organ of circulatory system and function The evolution of animals has increased the degree of specialization in tissues and organs. For example, simple multicellular organisms, such as sponges, have structures in which each cell interacts directly with the environment. Each cell exchanges materials acquires nutrients and throws its waste into the extracellular region. In larger, more complex animals, however, it is difficult because there are many cells deep within the body that interact minimally with the external environment. Therefore, each of the basic functions of the body performs with a specialized set of organs.
The digestive system specializes in the effective extraction of useful nutrients from food. Similarly, the respiratory system deals with gas exchange, while the nervous and hormonal systems are involved in coordination and homeostasis. However, to maintain each of this organ of circulatory system and function. In the body needs a circulatory system that allows each cell, present on the surface of the body or deeply embedded in itself, to obtain food, protect against pathogens, to communicate with other cells. and exist in a relatively constant microenvironment.
The complex network of blood vessels surrounding the small intestine absorbs final digestion products. The pituitary gland deep in the brain releases hormones that affect the musculoskeletal, fascial and reproductive systems. In the vesicles, oxygen from the air diffuses into capillaries, where it binds to hemoglobin in red blood cells. Through this carrier protein, blood delivers oxygen to every cell in the body. Blood also plays an important role in maintaining the body’s pH. This is especially important because pH affects the performance and efficacy of each biomolecule.
Temperature regulation is also carried out using the circulatory system. As the body temperature rises, the blood vessels in the skin dilate, which leads to heat loss. Finally, blood and lymph contain antibodies and immune cells – important mediators of protection against infection. This includes innate immune cells present from birth, as well as adaptive immunity acquired through exposure to pathogens.
organ of circulatory system and function
In humans organ of circulatory system and function, the heart is a four-chamber organ, containing two atria and two chambers. The atria are the receiving cells and receive blood from the veins. The oxygenated blood from the lungs reaches the left atrium. It passes into the left ventricle through the mitral valve during atrial contraction. During ventricular contraction, the blood is pumped into the aorta that circulates in the body through the arteries, arterioles, and capillaries. The exchange of materials occurs through single-celled capillary endothelial walls. Deoxygenated blood from various tissues returns to the right atrium of the heart through two main veins – upper and lower main vein.
Pulmonary gas exchange in alveoli
The image shows the four chambers of the heart along with the main blood vessels and valves.The second, more extensive, the loop is called systemic circulation and begins with the aorta and provides oxygen and nutrients to all body tissues, including the muscles of the heart itself.
The thinnest blood vessels are capillaries, made up of a single layer of squamous epithelial cells. These thin tubular structures are the main place for the exchange of materials between the circulatory system and tissues.
with the arteries depicted in blue and veins in red. In addition, arterial blood usually has a bright red color and venous blood is darker. Blood collected for routine testing often comes from veins. The systemic circulation arteries contain oxygenated blood, while the veins bring oxygen-free blood containing large amounts of carbon dioxide into the heart. The opposite situation applies to pulmonary circulation.
Interstitial fluid is a colorless solution that bathes all body cells and forms the main component of the extracellular fluid. It arises thanks to the hydrostatic strength of the blood in the capillaries, which leads to the outflow of water, ions and small substances dissolved from the circulatory system. Thus, interstitial fluid is in many ways similar to blood plasma. Part of this fluid begins to flow in the expanded open network of tubular structures that form the lymphatic circulation.
Atherosclerosis is a general term for the hardening and stiffening of arteries and arterioles. It causes impairment of the cardiovascular system, providing key nutrients to different parts of the body, because the arteries must remain flexible to adapt to blood pressure. If the artery walls or arterioles become rigid, they will not be able to adapt to the fluid pressure generated by each heartbeat, resulting in additional strain on the heart muscles.
Among the various causes of atherosclerosis, the formation of a fatty plate that closes the blood vessel is called arteriosclerosis. It starts with damage to the inner wall of the artery or artery endothelium, impurities or the presence of large amounts of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and cholesterol. This impairs the barrier function of the endothelium and allows cholesterol and other LDLs to move towards the inner tissues of the arterial wall. The presence of these molecules in the damaged area activates the immune system, recruiting macrophages to the site of damage.
When a large amount of LDL is in the plate, the macrophages are unable to clean the site and undergo necrosis, forming a core of dead cells in the arterial wall. The tile is calcified, as well as the formation of a fibrous envelope around the entire structure. These events increase resistance to blood flow and reduce the diameter and elasticity of blood vessels. They could also completely displace and move towards smaller blood vessels and close them completely.
Atherosclerosis can lead to many diseases based on a damaged blood vessel. If it affects the arteries that supply blood to the heart, it can lead to angina (chest pain), heart attack or cardiac arrest. Atherosclerosis can cause an increase in blood pressure when the renal arteries are partially or completely blocked. The total blockage of blood vessels supplying critical oxygen and glucose to the brain causes stroke, with possible irreversible damage to neurons and nerve tissue. If blood vessels supplying oxygenated blood to extremities or limbs become damaged, it may lead to tissue necrosis and potentially lead to gangrene.
Related biological conditions
Alveoli – Minute balloon bags found at the end of the respiratory tree in the lungs, consisting of a single layer of squamous epithelial cells. A website for gas exchange.
Auricle – An alternative term for the heart blood collection chamber, also known as the atrium.
Diastole – Phase during the heart cycle, when the muscles of the heart relax, allowing the chambers to fill with blood.
Systole – refers primarily to the contraction of the heart chambers, sending blood to the main arteries. Atrial contraction is an atrial contraction preceding ventricular contraction.
Organ of circulatory system and function Clinical significance
Many diseases affect the circulatory system. This includes cardiovascular disease, affecting the cardiovascular system and lymphatic disease attacking the lymphatic system. Cardiologists are doctors specializing in the heart, and cardiac surgeons specialize in working at the heart and surrounding areas. Vascular surgeons focus on other parts of the organ of circulatory system and function.
Main article: Cardiovascular disease
Diseases affecting the cardiovascular system are called cardiovascular diseases.
Atherosclerosis is a precursor to many of these diseases. This is where small atherosclerotic plaques form in the walls of medium and large arteries. It may eventually rise or break to close the arteries.
Another major cardiovascular disease includes the formation of a clot called a “clot”. They can come from veins or arteries. Deep vein thrombosis, which most often occurs in the legs, is one of the reasons for the formation of blood clots in the veins of the legs, especially when the person has remained stationary for a long time. These clots can cause embolization, which means traveling to a different location in the body. The results may include pulmonary embolism, transient ischemic attacks or stroke.
Cardiovascular diseases can also have an inherent nature, such as heart defects or persistent fetal circulation, where circulatory changes that are to occur after birth are not.
Magnetic resonance angiography of the abnormal subclavian artery
The functioning and health of the cardiovascular system and its parts are measured in various ways manually and automatically. These include simple methods, such as those that are part of the cardiovascular system, including taking the person’s pulse as a person’s heart rate indicator, taking blood pressure using a blood pressure monitor, or using a stethoscope to listen to the heart for murmurs that may indicate valve problems heart’s.
At the same time when the arteries are visualized, the blockages or constrictions can be determined by inserting stents, and active discounts can be managed by inserting the coils. MRI, called an MRI angiogram, can be used to image arteries.
Pulmonary circulation when going from the heart. Showing pulmonary and bronchial arteries.
Main article: Pulmonary circulation
The circulatory system of the lungs is part of the cardiovascular system in which oxygen-depleted blood is pumped from the heart through the pulmonary artery into the lungs and returned, oxygenated, to the heart via the pulmonary vein.
Oxygen deprived of blood from the upper and lower main veins goes to the right atrium of the heart and flows through the tricuspid valve (right atrioventricular valve) to the right ventricle, from where it is then pumped through the lumbar spine into the pulmonary artery to the lung. Gas exchange takes place in the lungs so that CO2 is released from the blood and oxygen is absorbed. The pulmonary vein now draws oxygen-rich blood to the left atrium.
A separate system known as bronchial circulation supplies blood to the tissue of the larger airways of the lungs.
The brain has a double blood supply that comes from the arteries on the front and back. The frontal circulation arises from the internal carotid arteries and provides the anterior part of the brain. Back circulation arises from the vertebral arteries and supplies the back of the brain and brain stem. Circulation from the front and from the back connects (anastomosis) in the circle of Willis.
organ of circulatory system and function kidneys
Renal circulation receives about 20% of cardiac output. It branches off the abdominal aorta and donates blood to the ascending vena cava. It is a blood supply to the kidneys and contains many specialized blood vessels.