Nucleus Function | Caudate & Subthalamic Nucleus

Cellular nucleus membrane associated with double membrane cells found in eukaryotic cells. The nucleus is the majority of the cell’s genetic material – DNA. The nucleus maintains the integrity of genes that regulate gene expression, in turn regulating nucleus function. Therefore, the nucleus is known as the cell control center.


Nucleus Function

Controls the inheritance characteristics of the organism.
It is responsible for protein synthesis, cell division, growth, and differentiation.
It stores hereditary material in the form of deoxyribonucleic acid strands (DNA) and also stores proteins and ribonucleic acid (RNA) in the nucleolus.

This is the place for the transcription process in which messenger RNA (m RNA) is produced for the synthesis of proteins. It helps in the exchange of DNA and RNA (heredity materials) between the nucleus and the rest of the cell.
Nucleolus produces ribosomes and is known as protein factories.
It also regulates the integrity of genes and gene expression.


Nucleus cell division

The nuclear envelope allows the nuclear to control its contents and, if necessary, separates them from the rest of the cytoplasm. This is important for controlling processes on both sides of the nuclear membrane. In most cases, when the cytoplasmic process needs to be limited, the key participant is removed to the nucleus where it interacts with transcription factors to reduce the production of some enzymes in the pathway. This regulatory mechanism occurs in the case of glycolysis, i.e. a cellular pathway for breaking down glucose to produce energy.


Hexokinase is the enzyme responsible for the first stage of glycolysis, forming glucose-6-phosphate from glucose. At high concentrations of fructose-6-phosphate, a molecule produced later from glucose-6-phosphate, the regulatory protein removes hexokinase to the nucleus, where it forms a complex of a transcriptional repressor with nuclear proteins to reduce the expression of genes involved in glycolysis.


To control which genes are transcribed

the cell separates some of the transcription factor proteins responsible for regulating gene expression from physical access to DNA until they are activated by other signaling pathways. This prevents even low levels of inappropriate gene expression. For example, in the case of NF-κB-controlled genes that are involved in the majority of inflammatory reactions, transcription is induced in response to a signaling pathway, such as initiated by a TNF-a signaling molecule. The binds to the cell membrane receptor, causing signal protein recruitment. and finally activating the NF-κB transcription factor. The nuclear localization signal on the NF-κB protein allows its transport through the nuclear pore and to the nucleus, where it stimulates the transcription of target genes.


Caudate Nucleus Function

Each of the cerebral hemispheres contains a caudate nucleus, and both are centrally located and close to the basal ganglia. They are also located near a hill that is deep in the brain, close to the midbrain. Each nucleus has a broadhead that narrows in the body and the thin tail. As a whole, each nucleus is curved and often resembles a “C” in shape.


The caudate nucleus plays an important role in brain science, in particular in the storage and processing of memories. It acts as a feedback processor, which means that it uses information from previous experiences to influence future actions and decisions. This is important for the development and use of language. In particular, it is believed that communication skills are controlled mainly by the left pectoral tail and the hill.


Some brain specialists suspect that the nucleus may play a role in the development of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). If this is true, it probably appears because the nucleus is unable to control the transmission of anxiety and pulses between the thalamus and the orbitofrontal cortex, which changes the impact of this information on actions and decisions.


Subthalamic Nucleus Function

The hypothalamic nucleus is a small, oval part of the hypothalamus in the brain, made of gray matter. Functionally, this is part of the system of basic windings. As the name suggests (“sub”), located on the bottom side of the hill, which lies close to the center of the brain. Hypothalamic nucleus affects motor control, and can also play a role in psychological processes.

People with damage to hypothalamic nuclei show increased impulsivity and behavioral problems. Studies indicate that hypothalamic nucleus may be associated with problems such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder or addictive behavior.

 In the formation of the nucleus of the hypothalamus may actually help treat the symptoms of Parkinson’s disease. Especially in the case of motor function. Less conclusive results were obtained on mood disorders associated with Parkinson’s disease.