The northbridge in the computer is an integrated circuit on the core chipset architecture. Unlike the Southbridge, the Northbridge is directly connected to the processor with the FSB (front-side bus).


Therefore responsible for tasks requiring the highest performance. The northbridge is usually paired with a southbridge, also known as an I / O controller concentrator



On systems where they are included, these two systems manage communication between the processor, In other parts of the motherboard and constitute the chipset of the main computer motherboard chip.




In older Intel-based computers, the northbridge in the computer was also called an external memory controller (MCH) hub. The video card and memory controller hub (GMCH) if it is equipped with integrated graphics. Increasingly, these functions have been integrated with the processor chip itself.


north bridge in computer
northbridge on bord




starting from memory controllers and graphics cards. For Intel Sandy Bridge and AMD Accelerated Processing Units introduced in 2011. All North Bridge features processor-based.




while AMD FX processors still require an external Northbridge and a Southbridge. Separation of various functions with processors. The northbridge and south bridges resulted from difficulties in integrating all components on one chip.




In some cases, the functions of the North and South Bridge have been merged into one matrix. The complexity of the design and production processes allow it; for example, Nvidia GeForce 320M in 2010 MacBook Air is a northbridge/southbridge.




As the speed of the processor increased with time, bottlenecks appeared between the processor and the motherboard. The limitations caused by data transmission between the processor and its support chipset.




Therefore, starting from the AMD Athlon64 processors (based on the Opteron processor). A new architecture use in, which some of the north and south chip functions transfer to the processor.


Modern Intel Core processors have a northbridge in computer integrated into the processor matrix. It is known as an agent or a system agent.



Northbridge in Computer Overview

The Northbridge usually supports communication between the processor. In some cases RAM and PCI Express (or AGP), and the South Bridge.




Some northern bridges also contain integrated video controllers, also known as graphics and memory hub (GMCH) in Intel systems. Because different processors and RAM require different signaling, the given Northbridge typically only works with one or two processor classes and generally only with one type of RAM.



There are several chipsets that support two types of RAM (usually they are available when the transition to the new standard).  For example, the North Bridge in computer from the Nvidia nForce2 chipset will only work with Socket A processors connected to the DDR SDRAM.


Intel i875 chip will only work with systems that use Pentium 4 processors or Celeron processors that have a clock speed greater than 1.3 GHz and use DDR SDRAM, and the Intel i915g chip only works with Intel Pentium 4 and Celeron processors, but you can use it DDR or DDR2.




The name comes from drawing architecture in the form of a map. The processor will be on the top of the map comparable to midnight on most general-purpose geographic maps.


The processor will connect to the microchip via a fast bridge (northbridge), located north of other system devices, as in the drawing. The northern bridge connects to the rest of the chip via a slow bridge (southbridge) locate in the south of other system devices.



North Intel i815EP bridge Clocking

The northbridge in computer plays an important role in the extent to which the computer can be overclocked because its frequency is commonly used as the basis for the processor to determine its own operating frequency.


This system usually gets hotter because the speed of the processor becomes faster, which requires more cooling. CPU overclocking has a limit because digital circuits limit with physical factors, such as the frequency of changes of operational amplifiers and propagation delay, which increase with (among other things) the operating temperature.


As a consequence, most overclocking applications have software restrictions imposed by the multiplier and external clock settings.





Part of the IBM T42 motherboard.

The general trend in processor design was to integrate more features with fewer components, which reduces the total cost of the motherboard and improves performance. A memory controller that supports communication between processes.