(nitrogen properties) – Nitrogen is one of the most interesting of all chemical elements. This is not a very active element. Combines with a relatively small amount of other elements at room temperature. However, nitrogen compounds are extremely important both in living organisms and in industrial applications. Five of the fifteen most important chemicals synthetically produced by chemical manufacturers are nitrogen compounds or the element itself.
How does such an inactive element end with so many important compounds? Nitrogen accounts for over three-quarters of the Earth’s atmosphere. It also occurs in many rocks and minerals on the Earth’s surface. It occupies about 32th place among the elements in terms of the abundance of the earth’s crust.
nitrogen properties and reaction
Nitrogen properties is a colorless, odorless gas that liquefies at -195.8 ° C to a colorless, mobile liquid. The element exists as N2 molecules, represented as N ::: N: for which the binding energy of 226 kcal per mole is exceeded only by carbon monoxide, 256 kcal per mole. Because of this high binding energy, the activation energy for the molecular nitrogen reaction is usually very high, which results in the nitrogen being relatively inert to most reagents under ordinary conditions.
In addition, the high stability of the nitrogen molecule significantly contributes to the thermodynamic instability of many nitrogen compounds in which the bonds, although quite strong, are much smaller than the bonds in molecular nitrogen. For these reasons, the nitrogen element seems to effectively hide the truly reactive nature of individual atoms.
A relatively recent and unexpected finding is that nitrogen molecules can serve as ligands in complex coordination compounds. The observation that some solutions of ruthenium complexes can absorb atmospheric nitrogen has led to the hope that one day, one can find a simpler and better method for binding nitrogen.
The active form of nitrogen, possibly containing free nitrogen atoms, can be produced by passing the gas under low pressure through a high voltage electrical discharge. The product shines with yellow light and is more reactive than ordinary molecular nitrogen, combining with atomic hydrogen and with sulfur, phosphorus, and various metals, and capable of decomposing nitrogen oxide, NO, N2 and O2.
The nitrogen atom has an electronic structure represented by 1s22s22p3. Five external shell electrons measure the nuclear charge very poorly, and as a result, the effective nuclear charge perceptible at the distance of the covalent ray is relatively high.
Thus, the nitrogen atoms are relatively small and have high electronegativity, being intermediate between carbon and oxygen in both of these properties. The electronic configuration contains three semi-inflated outer orbits that give the atom the ability to form three covalent bonds. Thus, the nitrogen atom should be a very reactive species that joins most other elements to form stable bi-component compounds, especially when the second element is sufficiently different in electronegativity to give significant polarity to the bonds.
When the second element has lower electronegativity than nitrogen, the polarity gives a partial negative charge to the nitrogen properties atom, thanks to which its electron pairs are available for coordination and the second element is more electronegative, the resulting partial positive charge on nitrogen significantly reduces the donor properties of the molecule.
When the bond polarization is low (due to the electronegativity of the second element similar to that for nitrogen), the multiple bonds is much more preferred than the single bond. If the discrepancy of the atomic size prevents such multiple binding, then the resulting single bond is probably relatively weak, and the compound is likely to be unstable with respect to the free elements. All these nitrogen bonding features are visible in general chemistry.
Often the percentage of nitrogen in gas mixtures can be determined by measuring the volume after all other ingredients have been absorbed by the chemical reagents. The decomposition of nitrates with sulfuric acid in the presence of mercury releases nitric oxide, which can be measured as a gas. The known Kjeldahl method for determining the nitrogen content in organic compounds consists in digesting the compound with concentrated sulfuric acid (optionally containing mercury or its oxide and various salts, depending on the nature of the nitrogen compound).
Physical Nitrogen properties
Nitrogen properties are odorless, tasteless gas with a density of 1.25046 grams per liter. For comparison, the air density is about 1.29 grams per liter. Nitrogen changes from gas to liquid at -195.79 ° C (-320.42 ° F). It changes from liquid to solid at -210.9 ° C (-34.02 ° F). When it freezes, it becomes a white solid that looks like snow. Nitrogen is slightly soluble in water. About two liters of nitrogen can be dissolved in 100 liters of water.
Chemical Nitrogen properties
At room temperature, nitrogen is a very inactive gas. It does not combine with oxygen, hydrogen or most other elements. Nitrogen combines with oxygen in the presence of lightning or a spark. Electricity from one of these sources causes nitrogen and oxygen to form nitric oxide:
In nitrogen properties, Nitric oxide is more active than free nitrogen. For example, nitric oxide combines with oxygen and water in the atmosphere to form nitric acid. When it rains, nitric acid is transferred to the ground. There, it connects with metals in the Earth’s crust.
The change of nitrogen properties as a nitrogen element in compounds is called nitrogen bonding. The reaction of nitrogen with oxygen in the air during a lightning strike is an example of nitrogen fixation.
Some bacteria have developed methods for fixing nitrogen. These bacteria live on the hairs of plant roots. They take nitrogen from the air dissolved in the earth and transform it into compounds such as nitrates.
Plants, animals, and humans do not have the ability to bind nitrogen. All living organisms on Earth depend on soil bacteria to carry out this process. Plants can grow because bacteria bind nitrogen to them. They use solid nitrogen for protein production. Animals and people can survive because they eat plants. They also depend on soil bacteria that enable plants to produce proteins. So all living beings rely on soil bacteria to repair their nitrogen for them and thus survive.
Occurrence in nature
Nitrogen properties is a fairly common element in the Earth’s crust. It occurs mainly as nitrates and nitrites. Nitrogen is by far the most important element in the Earth’s atmosphere. It accounts for 78.084 percent of the atmosphere.
Nitrogen combines with oxygen in the presence of lightning or a spark. Electricity from these sources causes nitrogen and oxygen to form nitric oxide.
There are two naturally occurring nitrogen properties, nitrogen-14, and nitrogen-15 isotopes. Isotopes are two or more forms of an element. Isotopes differ with each other depending on their number. The number written to the right of the element name is the mass number. The mass number represents the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of the elemental atom. The number of protons determines the element, but the number of neutrons in the atom of any element can be different. Each variation is an isotope.
None of the radioactive nitrogen properties isotopes has any important commercial use. A compound of nitrogen-15 weighs a little more than one made with nitrogen-14. There are simple chemical methods to detect if the system has a heavier relationship or a lighter one.