Neutrophil and Neutropenia function & symptoms
Neutrophils are the most abundant type of granulocytes and the most abundant (40% to 70%) type of white blood cells in most mammals. They are a significant part of the innate immune system. Their functions vary from animal to animal. read on more neutrophil function.
Neutrophil function is a type of white blood cells. In fact, most white blood cells that lead to immune responses are neutrophils. There are four other types of white blood cells. Neutrophils are the most abundant, representing between 55 and 70 percent of your white blood cells. White blood cells, also called leukocytes, are a key part of the immune system.
In neutrophil function, your immune system consists of tissues, organs, and cells. As part of this complex system, white blood cells patrol your blood system and lymphatic system. When you are sick or have minor injuries, substances that your body perceives as foreign, called antigens, call your immune system action.
Examples of antigens include in neutrophil function-
bacteria, viruses, mushrooms, poison, Cancer cells, White blood cells produce chemicals that fight antigens by going to the source of infection or inflammation.
Neutrophils are important because, unlike other white blood cells, they are not limited to a specific area of circulation. They can move freely through the walls of veins and body tissues to immediately attack all antigens.
Absolute neutrophil count (ANC)
An absolute neutrophil count (ANC) can provide your doctor with important information about your health. ANC is usually ordered as part of a complete blood count (CBC) with differentiation. CBC measures cells in the blood.
Your doctor may order ANC: display several conditions to help diagnose the condition monitor your status if you already have a disease or undergo chemotherapy. If your ANC is abnormal, your doctor will probably want to repeat your blood test several times in a few weeks. In this way, they can monitor changes in the number of neutrophils.
causes low levels of neutrophils
Neutropenia is the term for low levels of neutrophils. Low neutrophil counts are most often associated with drugs, but may also be a sign of other factors or diseases, including:
some medicines, including those used in chemotherapy, suppressed the immune system, bone marrow failure, aplastic anemia neutropenia with fever, which is an urgent medical case congenital disorders such as Kostmann syndrome and cyclic neutropenia hepatitis A, B or C. HIV / AIDS, sepsis, autoimmune diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, leukemia, myelodysplastic syndromes.
The risk of infection is greatest if the neutrophil count drops below 1 500 neutrophils per microliter. Very low neutrophil counts can lead to life-threatening infections.
Neutropenia or neutropenia is an abnormally low level of neutrophils (a type of white blood cell) in the blood. Neutrophils constitute the majority of circulating white blood cells and serve as the basic protection against infections by destroying bacteria, fragments of bacteria and viruses associated with immunoglobulins in the blood. Persons with neutropenia are more susceptible to bacterial infections and without prompt medical care, this condition may be life-threatening (neutropenic sepsis).
Types of neutropenia
There are four types of neutropenia:
Congenital neutropenia occurs from birth. Severe congenital neutropenia is also called Kostmann syndrome. This causes very low levels of neutrophils. In some cases, neutrophils are absent. This exposes infants and young children to serious infections.
Cyclic neutropenia causes the neutrophil count to change in the 21-day cycle. The neutrophil count drops from normal to low. The period of neutropenia can last for several days. Normal levels follow the rest of the cycle. The cycle resets and starts again.
In autoimmune neutropenia, your body produces antibodies that fight your neutrophils. These antibodies kill neutrophil function and this causes neutropenia. Autoimmune neutropenia develops in later life.
Idiopathic neuropathy develops at any time in life and can affect everyone. The cause is unknown.
symptoms of neutropenia
Symptoms of neutropenia may range from mild to severe. The lower the level of neutrophils, the more intense the symptoms.
fever, pneumonia, sinus infections, otitis media or ear infection, gingivitis or gingivitis, inflammation of the palate or navel infection cutaneous abscesses Severe congenital neutropenia may have serious symptoms. Symptoms often include bacterial infections. These infections can develop on the skin, in the digestive and respiratory tract. Symptoms of cyclic neutropenia recur in three-week cycles. Infections can grow when neutrophil function levels fall. Symptoms of autoimmune and idiopathic neutropenia include infection. Usually, they are not as serious as those in congenital forms.
Neutropenia can be triggered by chemotherapy, radiotherapy, use of some medicines, Other reasons are: Shwachman-Diamond syndrome, which is a congenital condition affecting the bone marrow and pancreatic insufficiency Glycogen-type 1b inflammatory disease, which is a rare inherited disorder that affects blood sugar levels: leukemia, viral disease, severe aplastic anemia, Fanconi anemia, conditions that affect the bone marrow According to the American National Library, most people with severe congenital neutropenia do not have a family history of this disease.