The nervous tissue function in the human brain is the most inspiring and fascinating organ in the human body. Every memory you have and every emotion you will ever experience is an extraordinary result of evolution. The nervous system is the driving force of the brain, consisting of nervous tissue.


It is divided into two parts: (1) CNS or central nervous system, which includes the decision centers of our body – namely the brain and spinal cord; and (2) PNS or peripheral nervous system, which consists of the remaining nerve tissues in our body.



1. The cell of the body

The main part of the cell encapsulated by the plasma membrane is the cell body, also known as soma. It mainly contains the nucleus and cytoplasm. Inside the cytoplasm, granules, mitochondria, Golgi complex, lysosomes, and other cellular organelles are present.



nervous tissue function

As in any other cell, the cell is responsible for controlling metabolic activity.
It drives the neuron through energy synthesis and is responsible for the growth and repair of the neuron.



2. Axon

In nervous tissue function, It is an elongated structure protruding from the cell body and seriously branched at the end.
Myelin coat: axon is covered with a white layer of fat called the myelin sheath.




It supports two main functions – protection and isolation of the axon and acceleration of electrical signals during transmission. Neurilemma: The layer of the myelin sheath has a cellular shell called the neurilemma or the Schwann shield.



In nervous tissue function, The neuron is necessary for the regeneration of nerves. It occurs only in the peripheral nervous system. In the central nervous system, neurilemma is absent, therefore the nerves are unable to regenerate. Ranvier knots: The medullary armor is not a continuous layer on the axon; has joints or breaks of the node type called Ranvier nodes.



Another nervous tissue function

They play a very important role in transmitting impulses. In the case of an electrical signal, there must be a potential difference between the two given points. Ranvier nodes are those points where the axon polarizes and depolarizes, and thus the potential difference develops and imparts an impulse.

nervous tissue function
nervous tissue function

These axon need for the neuron to receive food and remove waste.
Medullary armor: neurilemma together with the myelin sheath collectively call a medulla sheath.
Axon tip: Axon branches at the end, with small bulb-like endings, also known as terminal buttons.




In other nervous tissue function, The end of the axon is responsible for transmitting impulses from one neuron to another. Terminal buttons produce neurotransmitters – a chemical substance necessary for transmission.



Types of neurons
By structure

These neurons consist of one dendrite and one axon. The structure is such that a single projection emerges from the soma, which divides into two protrusions with one end having an axon tip and the other having dendrites. Such neurons are usually sensory neurons.


Bipolar: bipolar neurons have the most simplified structure. Soma is centrally located, and the dendrites and axon protrude from opposite ends. These neurons are also mostly sensory neurons.


Multipolar: Maximum neurons belong to the category where soma has many dendrites and a single axon.