The meninges are three layers of protective tissue called the hard tire, the arachnoid fabric and the bulb surrounding the neuraxis. The brain and spinal cord tones are continuous, connected by magnum foramen.


Meninges layers

Dura Mater

The dura mater is the highest layer of the meninges layers. Its name means “hard mother” in Latin and is hard and inflexible. This tissue forms several structures that separate the cranial cavity from the compartments and protect the brain from displacement.


Falx cerebri separates the hemispheres of the brain. Falx cerebelli separates the cerebellar lobes. The cerebellar tent separates the brain from the cerebellum.

The hard tire also creates several sinuses that resemble veins that carry blood (which has already supplied oxygen and nutrients to the brain) back to the heart. The upper sagittal bay runs through the upper part of the brain in the anterolateral direction.


Other sinuses include the straight sinus, lower sinus, and transverse sinus. Epidural space is the potential space between the dura mater and the skull.


dura mater


If there is a hemorrhage in the brain, the blood may collect here. Adults are more likely than children to bleed here due to a closed head injury. Subdural space is another potential space.


It is between the hard tire and the middle layer of the meninges, arachnoid matter. When the bleeding appears in the skull, the blood can collect here and push the lower layers of the tires. If the bleeding persists, this brain pressure will be damaged. In children, bleeding in the subdural space is particularly likely.


Arachnoid mater

Arachnids or arachnids are the middle layers of meninges layers. In some areas protrudes into the sinuses formed by the dura mater. These predictions are the granulation of the arachnoid/villi of arachnoid. They transfer the cerebrospinal fluid from the chambers back to the bloodstream.


The subarachnoid space lies between the arachnid and pianos. It fills with cerebrospinal fluid. All blood vessels pass through the brain such as cranial nerves pass through this space.



Pia Mater

Pia mater is the most inner layer of meninges layers. Unlike other layers, this tissue adheres closely to the brain, draining to the furrows of the bark. It connects to the enemy, the membranous lining of the chambers, creating structures called choroidal plexuses that produce the cerebrospinal fluid.



Cerebro-spinal fluid

Cerebrospinal fluid clear fluid produces in the brain spaces called chambers. Like saliva, it is a blood filtrate. It also occurs inside the subarachnoid space of the meninges, which surrounds both the brain and the spinal cord.


In addition, the space inside the spinal cord called the central canal also contains cerebrospinal fluid. It acts as a cushion for neuraxis, and also provides nutrients to the brain and spinal cord and removes waste from the system.



Choroid weave

All chambers contain choroidal plexuses that produce cerebrospinal fluid, allowing certain blood components to enter the chambers. The choroidal strands are formed by the fusion of the pad, the innermost layer of the tires and the lining, the mucous membrane of the chambers.




These four spaces are filled with cerebrospinal fluid and protect the brain, cushioning it and supporting its weight.


Two side chambers extend over a large area of ​​the brain. The front corners of these structures are found in the frontal lobes. They extend back to the parietal lobes, and their lower corners are located in the temporal lobe.


The third chamber lies between two thalamic bodies. The intermedia mass passes through it, and the hypothalamus forms its bottom and part of the side walls.


The fourth chamber locates between the cerebellum and bridges. The four chambers connect to each other. The two Munro foraminous, which are also known as the ventricular opening, connect the lateral ventricles to the third chamber.


The aqueduct of Sylwiusz, also known as the aqueduct of the brain, connects the third and fourth chambers. The fourth chamber is connected to the subarachnoid space by means of two Luschka lateral openings and one Magendia central opening.



Subarachnoid space

Although the cerebrospinal fluid produced in all chambers, it circulates in a system in a certain way, moving from the lateral ventricle to the third and then from the third to the fourth.


From the fourth chamber, the cerebrospinal fluid passes into the subarachnoid space, where it circulates around the outer part of the brain and spinal cord and finally goes to the upper sagittal bay by arachnoid granulation called the arachnoid villi.


In the upper spinal sinus, cerebrospinal fluid reabsorbed into the bloodstream. Cerebrospinal fluid neuraxis regenerates several times in twenty-four hours. Endolymphs and perilymphs, fluids.