Jupiter is a massive planet in the solar system. To look at it in perspective, it would take 11 Earths side by side to extend from one side of Jupiter to the other, and it would take 317 Earths equal to the mass of Jupiter. Read more about Jupiter facts.





The first recorded observations of Jupiter were made by the ancient Babylonians around 7 or 8 BC. The name comes from Jupiter, the king of Roman gods and the god of heaven.


The Greek equivalent is Zeus, the god of thunder. For Mesopotamia, he was the god Marduk and the patron of the city of Babylon. Germanic tribes viewed the planet as Donar, also known as Thor.



The Jupiter facts, When Galileo discovered the four moons of Jupiter in 1610, it was the first evidence of celestial bodies orbiting something other than Earth.

Jupiter facts
Moons of Jupiter

The discovery also provided further evidence for the Copernican model “focused on the sun”.



Jupiter has the shortest day. The planet rotates very fast, turning its axis once every 9 hours and 55 minutes. This rapid rotation is also the reason for the flattening of the planet, which is why it has a flattened shape.



Jupiter has a weak ring system. Its ring consists mainly of dust particles from some moons of Jupiter when hit by comets and asteroids.

The ring system begins about 92,000 km above Jupiter’s clouds and reaches over 225,000 km from the planet. The rings have a thickness of 2000 to 12 500 km.



Jupiter has at least 67 moons. This applies to four large moons called the Galilean moons, which were first discovered by Galileo in 1610.



The largest of the moons of Jupiter, Ganymede is the largest moon in the solar system.

Jupiter facts
Jovian satellites

The moons are sometimes called Jovian satellites, the largest of which are Ganymede, Callisto, Io, and Europa. Ganymede is larger than the planet Mercury with a diameter of approximately 5,268 km.



Jupiter has a very strong magnetic field. It is about 14 times stronger than the magnetic field found on Earth – the largest of any planet in the Solar System.



Jupiter is the 4rth shining object in our Solar System. After the Sun, Moon, and Venus, Jupiter is the brightest and is one of the five planets that can be seen with the naked eye from Earth.



Jupiter is the only planet that has the center of mass with the Sun, which lies beyond the volume of the Sun, though only by 7% of the Sun’s radius.



Jupiter has a very unique cloud layer.

Jupiter facts
Cloud layer

The upper atmosphere of the planet is divided into zones and stripes of clouds, which are made of ammonium crystals, sulfur and a mixture of these two compounds.



Eight spacecraft have visited Jupiter so far. These are the Pioneer 10 and 11 missions, Voyager 1 and 2, Galileo, Cassini, Ulysses and New Horizons.


The next mission, Juno, is to come to Jupiter in the vicinity of July 2016. Future missions are also planned, which will focus on Jupiter – Jupiter – Europe, Ganymede and Callisto – and their possible ocean subsets.



Jupiter does not incidentally season like other planets, such as Earth and Mars. This is because the axis is inclined only by 3.13 degrees.



The huge red spot of Jupiter is a huge storm that has been raging for over 300 years. This storm is so wide that three Earths would fit in it.



If Jupiter became 80 times more massive, the nuclear synthesis would take place in the nucleus. If it did, it would become a star instead of a planet.




Even more annoying is the theory that Jupiter is a failed star. Current scientific knowledge suggests that if Jupiter was actually about 80 times more massive, nuclear fusion would have occurred in its core; in this way, Jupiter would become a star, not a planet.


Regardless, it is still tempting to look at the number of satellites orbiting Jupiter and to consider her and her moons in many ways the mini solar system.


Instead, most of these features can be observed with ground telescopes. For example, it was not until 1994 that the Hubble Space Telescope provided amazing images of the impact of Shoemaker-Levy 9 on Jupiter.



Atmosphere Of Jupiter

The vertical dimension of Jupiter’s atmosphere is more difficult to define than terrestrial planets. For example, while the lower limit of the atmosphere on Earth is its constant planetary surface, there is no equivalent on Jupiter.


Essentially, Jupiter’s atmosphere passes from the gaseous outer zone into the liquid layer of the planet. However, for practical reasons, scientists have set the depth at which the atmospheric pressure is equal to ten times the sea level pressure on Earth as the “surface” of Jupiter.


These layers of atmosphere visible to telescopes on Earth are divided into lighter and darker horizontal bands. Scientists believe that these bands are layers of high and low pressure.


As a result, storms often develop on the boundaries between two neighboring bands. The Great Red Spot, visible in the southern hemisphere of Jupiter, is one of those storms. Surprisingly, this storm has been raging for ages and is 25,000 km in diameter – it’s big enough to hold two planets!


The composition of Jupiter’s atmosphere is very interesting. Approximately 90% hydrogen and 10% helium, Jupiter’s composition is almost the same as the Sun. The only difference between them is that the sun is much more massive than Jupiter. This composition confirms the theory that Jupiter could have been a star.



Rings Of Jupiter

Although Saturn’s rings are well known, it is rarely heard of Jupiter’s rings. Nevertheless, Jupiter has a ring system.

Jupiter rings are less known than Saturn (or even Uranus), because they mainly consist of dust, making them difficult to see. It is believed that the formation of these rings occurred as a result of Jupiter’s gravity after taking the material ejected from its moons.