Named after the Roman king of the gods, Jupiter fits his name. With a mass of 1.90 x 1027 kg and an average diameter of 139 822 km, Jupiter is easily the largest and most massive planet in the solar system. To look at it in perspective, it would take 11 Earths side by side to extend from one side of Jupiter to the other, and it would take 317 Earths equal to the mass of Jupiter. Read more about Jupiter facts.
The first recorded observations of Jupiter were made by the ancient Babylonians around 7 or 8 BC. The name comes from Jupiter, the king of Roman gods and the god of heaven. The Greek equivalent is Zeus, the god of thunder. For Mesopotamia, he was the god Marduk and the patron of the city of Babylon. Germanic tribes viewed the planet as Donar, also known as Thor.
The Jupiter facts, When Galileo discovered the four moons of Jupiter in 1610, it was the first evidence of celestial bodies orbiting something other than Earth. The discovery also provided further evidence for the Copernican model “focused on the sun”.
Jupiter has the shortest day of the eight planets. The planet rotates very Jupiter rotates very fast, turning its axis once every 9 hours and 55 minutes. This rapid rotation is also the reason for the flattening of the planet, which is why it has a flattened shape.
Other Jupiter facts, One orbit of the Sun occupies Jovian 11.86 earth years. This means that while watching from Earth, the planet moves very slowly in the sky. Jupiter needs several months to go from one constellation to the next.
Jupiter has a weak ring system around him. Its ring consists mainly of dust particles from some moons of Jupiter when hit by comets and asteroids. The ring system begins about 92,000 km above Jupiter’s clouds and reaches over 225,000 km from the planet. The rings have a thickness of 2000 to 12 500 km.
Jupiter has at least 67 moons on a satellite around the planet. This applies to four large moons called the Galilean moons, which were first discovered by Galileo in 1610.
Another Jupiter facts, The largest of the moons of Jupiter, Ganymede is the largest moon in the solar system. The moons are sometimes called Jovian satellites, the largest of which are Ganymede, Callisto, Io, and Europa. Ganymede is larger than the planet Mercury with a diameter of approximately 5,268 km.
Jupiter has a very strong magnetic field. It is about 14 times stronger than the magnetic field found on Earth – the largest of any planet in the Solar System.
Jupiter is the fourth brightest object in our Solar System. After the Sun, Moon, and Venus, Jupiter is the brightest and is one of the five planets that can be seen with the naked eye from Earth.
Jupiter is the only planet that has the center of mass with the Sun, which lies beyond the volume of the Sun, though only by 7% of the Sun’s radius.
Jupiter has a very unique cloud layer. The upper atmosphere of the planet is divided into zones and stripes of clouds, which are made of ammonium crystals, sulfur and a mixture of these two compounds.
Eight spacecraft have visited Jupiter so far. These are the Pioneer 10 and 11 missions, Voyager 1 and 2, Galileo, Cassini, Ulysses and New Horizons. The next mission, Juno, is to come to Jupiter in the vicinity of July 2016. Future missions are also planned, which will focus on Jupiter – Jupiter – Europe, Ganymede and Callisto – and their possible ocean subsets.
Jupiter does not experience the seasons like other planets, such as Earth and Mars. This is because the axis is inclined only by 3.13 degrees.
The huge red spot of Jupiter is a huge storm that has been raging for over 300 years. This storm is so wide that three Earths would fit in it.
If Jupiter became 80 times more massive, nuclear synthesis would take place in the nucleus. If it did, it would become a star instead of a planet.
OTHER INFORMATION ABOUT JUPITER FACTS
Even more provocative is the theory that Jupiter is a failed star. Current scientific knowledge suggests that if Jupiter was actually about 80 times more massive, nuclear fusion would have occurred in its core; in this way, Jupiter would become a star, not a planet. Regardless, it is still tempting to look at the number of satellites orbiting Jupiter and to consider her and her moons in many ways the mini solar system.
Although our scientific knowledge of Jupiter has been greatly expanded due to the numerous planetary missions beginning in the 1970s, these missions are not necessary to view the surface of the planet. Instead, most of these features can be observed with ground telescopes. For example, it was not until 1994 that the Hubble Space Telescope provided amazing images of the impact of Shoemaker-Levy 9 on Jupiter.
Atmosphere Jupiter Facts
The vertical dimension (i.e., Thickness) of Jupiter’s atmosphere is more difficult to define than terrestrial planets. For example, while the lower limit of the atmosphere on Earth is its constant planetary surface, there is no equivalent on Jupiter. Essentially, Jupiter’s atmosphere passes from the gaseous outer zone into the liquid layer of the planet. However, for practical reasons, scientists have set the depth at which the atmospheric pressure is equal to ten times the sea level pressure on Earth as the “surface” of Jupiter.
These layers of atmosphere visible to telescopes on Earth are divided into lighter and darker horizontal bands. Scientists believe that these bands are layers of high and low pressure. As a result, storms often develop on the boundaries between two neighboring bands. The Great Red Spot, visible in the southern hemisphere of Jupiter, is one of those storms. Surprisingly, this storm has been raging for ages and is 25,000 km in diameter – it’s big enough to hold two planets!
The composition of Jupiter’s atmosphere is very interesting. Approximately 90% hydrogen and 10% helium, Jupiter’s composition is almost the same as the Sun. The only difference between them is that the sun is much more massive than Jupiter. This composition confirms the theory that Jupiter could have been a star.
Interior Jupiter facts
It is believed that the interior of Jupiter facts consists of three regions. The first is a rocky core composed of various elements with a mass from 12 to 45 times greater than the mass of the entire Earth. The core is surrounded by a second area, a layer of electrically conductive liquid hydrogen. Because of this layer, which contains most of the planet’s mass, Jupiter has such a strong magnetic field. The third region consists of ordinary hydrogen with traces of helium that goes into the atmosphere of the planet.
The fascinating property of Jupiter is that it emits more energy than it receives from the Sun. This is because the planet is so massive. As a result of such a mass, Jupiter exerts a strong force of gravity, which causes the compression of the planet as a whole. The cumulative effect of all this force inward is the generation of a large amount of heat, which is then emitted into space.
Orbit Jupiter facts
With an average orbital distance of 7.78 x 108 km, Jupiter is five times as large as the distance from Earth to the Sun. This means that sunlight reaches Jupiter about 43 minutes. Also, the eccentricity of Jupiter’s orbit .04838 is the fourth largest planet, giving it perihelion of 7.41 x 108 km and aphelion 8,16 x 108 km. The year of Jupiter has about 4333 earth days – it’s about 12 times more than one earth year! The Jovian axis of 3.17 ° is extremely small and the second lowest in the solar system behind Mercury. This means that Jupiter does not experience seasons at all.
Two things stand out because of Jupiter’s rotation. The first is speed. In less than 10 hours, Jupiter has the shortest period in the Solar System. (Saturn is close to the second after 10.7 hours.) This fast rotational speed causes the planet to bulge near the equator, making it less spherical than most other planets. The second characteristic feature of Jupiter’s rotation is that various parts rotate at different speeds. This is due to the fact that Jupiter is not a solid body. For example, the polar atmosphere turns about 5 minutes slower than the one on the equator.
Rings Jupiter facts
Although Saturn’s rings are well known, it is rarely heard of Jupiter’s rings. Nevertheless, Jupiter has a ring system. Jupiter rings are less known than Saturn (or even Uranus), because they mainly consist of dust, making them difficult to see. It is believed that the formation of these rings occurred as a result of Jupiter’s gravity after taking the material ejected from its moons.