Electrical properties are one of the essential things that enable the heart to process. These electrical properties are accountable for the regulation of heart rate and rhythm.



How the heart works step by step through the cycle of the heart

The heart cycle covers many different things, enabling the heart to work. During diastole (the filling stage), both the mitral valve and the tricuspid valve are open.


This allows blood flow in the left and right ventricles, respectively. During contraction, which is the contraction of the left and right ventricles, both the pulmonary valve and the aortic valve are open to allow blood to flow into the aorta and into the lungs.

Blood on the way to the lungs through the pulmonary artery requires more oxygen. Some of the heart, the cycle is diastole, which is the relaxation and filling of the atria and chambers. Systole is a contraction and emptying of atria and chambers. Learn more about heart anatomy.


how the heart works step by step



How the heart process with the AKA cardiac cycle

There are many terms, which I would like to define at this time, before continuing. These are a myocardial contraction, sarcoplasmic reticulum, and myofibril sarcomere.


The contraction of the myocardium basically means a contraction of the heart. In the same way, you lift weights with your biceps. In the sarcoplasmic reticulum, your heart is accumulating calcium.


Here the fragment of the chemistry of the heart cycle begins. Calcium ions encourage actin and myosin proteins to combine and overlap.

These protein fibers shorten the sarcomeres causing myocardial contraction or heartbeat. The cardiac muscle relaxes when the calcium ions return to the sarcoplasmic reticulum and the process begins again.



Mechanical properties that determine the action of the heart

Both mechanical and electrical sources process jointly to determine how well the cardiovascular system works in your body. The blood that is from the left ventricle goes to the organs of the body and this blood contains oxygen.


The minute volume based on the relationship between the heart rate and the stroke volume. To find the result of cardiac output, you should take your heart rate and the ejection capacity.

The minute volume of an adult’s heart is about 4 to 7 l per minute. The minute capacity of the heart is not the same for everyone.

This is because the minute volume of the heart varies based on the size of the body. Here we get a heat index. You can calculate the heat index by dividing the cardinal projection across the body surface.

The normal range for this is 2.7 to 3.2 L per minute / m. Heart rate is the number of cases in which the chambers shrink every minute.



The typical heart rate for an adult is 60 to 100 beats per minute. Most of the time you react to your surroundings. During the exercises, you will see an increase in the heart rate.


Unlike your seat, your heart rate will decrease. The causes for this is that the oxygen that your body needs is growing, so your heart must be faster to meet demand. Catecholamines are amino acids found in proteins.


More known catecholamines are adrenaline and norepinephrine, which are responsible for increasing heart rate and heart spasms. The parasympathetic system decreases the heart rate, mainly as a result of the vagus nerve.



Location and shape MRI in the real-time human heart

The human heart is in the middle of the chest and its tip is directed to the left.
The human heart is in the mediastinum, at the level of the T5-T8 thoracic vertebrae.


A double-membrane bag called pericardium surrounds the heart and attaches to the mediastinum.  The posterior surface of the heart is the closest to the spine and cartilage of the ribs.


The upper part of the heart of the large blood vessels – tubular veins, aorta, and pulmonary trunk. The upper part of the heart is the level of the third costal cartilage. The lower fragment of the heart, the tip, is located on the left side of the sternum (8 to 9 cm from the middle line).


The largest part of the heart is the most beautiful part of the chest (even though it can be shifted to the right). body. Because the heart is between the lungs, the left lung is the heart of the heart.


The heart has a shape and a narrowing towards the top. An adult heart has a mass of 250-350 grams (9-12 ounces). [The heart usually has a fist-size: 12 cm (5 inches) long, 8 cm (3.5 inches) wide, and 6 cm (5.5 inches) thick.  Well-trained athletes can have much larger muscles, similar to skeletal muscle reactions.



how the heart works step by step and functions

The heart is cut from the right and left ventricles, from above
The heart has four chambers, two upper chambers, receiving chambers and two chambers, unloading chambers.


The atria in the chambers through the atrioventricular valves, present in the atrioventricular septum. This distinction is also visible on the heart of coronary furrows. In the right upper vestibule, there is a structure in the left vestibule. Similarly, the left atrium and the left ventricle.


how the heart works step by step


Heart valves

After removing the atria and large vessels, all four valves are clearly visible.  Heart showing valves, arteries, and veins. White arrows show the typical direction of blood flow.


The front part showing the papillary muscles attached to the tricuspid valve on the right side and to the mitral valve on the left side via the cartilage Chordata.

The heart has four valves that separate its chambers. One valve is located between each vestibule and the chamber, and one valve rests on the exit of each chamber.


Valves between the atria and chambers are called atrioventricular valves. There is a tricuspid valve within the right atrium and the right ventricle.

The tricuspid valve has three bumps that connect to tendon muscles and three papillary muscles called front, back, and septal muscles, at their relative positions.


The mitral valve is found between the left atrium and the left ventricle. It is also known as the bicuspid valve because it has two tumors, a front, and a back bump. These nodules are also attached by means of a chord to the two papillary muscles protruding from the chamber wall.


The papillary muscles extend from the walls of the heart to the valves using cartilaginous connections called chordee. These muscles prevent the valves from falling too close when they close.


As the heart chambers contract, like the papillary muscles. This causes tension on the sewing string, helping to hold the atrioventricular valve nodules in place and preventing them from being purged back into the atria.



Wall of the heart Cardiac muscle

Surface Layers of the heart wall, including visceral and parietal pericardium.
The heart wall consists of three layers: the inner intracranial part, the middle myocardium, and the outer epicardium.


It consists of a straight-lining of the squamous epithelium and includes heart chambers and valves. Endocardium, secrete endothelin, may also play a role in regulating myocardial contraction.



Swirling the heart muscle helps to pump the heart effectively

The middle layer of the heart wall is the cardiac muscle, i.e. the myocardium – a layer of involuntary striated muscle tissue surrounded by collagen.


The pattern of the myocardium is elegant and complex, because the muscle cells are spinning and circling around the heart chambers, with the outer muscles forming the octal pattern around the atria and around the bases of the great vessels, and the inner muscles forming the form around the two chambers and going towards the apex.

This complex, whirling pattern allows the heart to pump blood more efficiently.


There are two types of cells in the heart muscle: muscle cells that have the ability to easily contract and the cells of the pacemaker starter.

Muscle cells make up the majority (99%) of cells in the atria and ventricles. The intercalated discs allow cells to act as a syncytium and allow contractions that pump blood through the heart and into the main arteries.


cells of the stimulator

The cells of the stimulator constitute 1% of cells and form a cardiac conduction system. They are generally much smaller than contractile cells and have few myofibrils, which gives them limited shrinkage.


Their function is similar in many respects to neurons. The myocardial tissue has an authoritarian, unique ability to initiate cardiac action potential at a fixed rate – the rapid spread of the pulse from the cell to the cell in order to induce whole heart contraction.



They are most often associated with muscle contraction and bind to actin, myosin, tropomyosin, and troponin. These include MYH6, ACTC1, TNNI3, CDH2, and PKP2.




The pericardium is a sack that surrounds the heart. The part of the serous membrane attached to the fibrous membrane is called the winding axis, whereas the part of the serous membrane attached to the heart is called the visceral pericardium.


The pericardium is present to lubricate its movement relative to other structures in the chest to maintain the stability of the heart position in the chest and protect the heart from infection.


Coronary circulation

Arterial heart supply (red), with other areas marked (blue).
Main article: Coronary circulation
The heart tissue, like all cells in the body, must be supplied with oxygen, nutrients and a way to remove metabolic waste.


This is achieved by coronary circulation, which includes the arteries, veins, and lymphatic vessels. Coronary blood flow occurs in the peaks and valleys associated with the loosening or contraction of the myocardium.


The heart tissue receives blood from two arteries that arise just above the aortic valve. These are the left main coronary artery and the right coronary artery.


The left main coronary artery breaks shortly after leaving the aorta into two vessels, the left anterior descending and the left peripheral artery. The left anterior descending artery supplies the cardiac tissue and the front, the outer side and the left ventricle septum.

It does this by branching into smaller arteries – diagonal branches and divisions.



The left coronary supplies the back and under the left compartment. The right coronary artery supplies the right vestibule, the right ventricle and lowers the posterior segments of the left ventricle.


The right coronary artery also provides blood to the atrioventricular node (in about 90% of people) and the sinus node (about 60% of people). The groove in the back of the heart and the left anterior descending artery runs in the groove in the front.

There is a significant difference between people in the anatomy of the arteries supplying the heart