Central vacuole is a cell organelle found in plant cells. Often it is the largest organelle in the cell.

It is surrounded by a membrane and is used to store materials and waste. It also works to maintain adequate pressure in plant cells to provide structure and support for the growing plant.



Function of Vacuole

 The vacuole is filled with a membrane filled and with a liquid sack found in plant cells, including fungi.

The vacuum can be large organelles occupying 30% to 90% of the cell by volume. It seems that the vacuum has three main functions of vacuole:

*contribute to the stiffness of the installation with water to create hydrostatic pressure. * store nutrients and non-nutritive chemicals
break down complicated particles.

The name vacuole comes from the Latin word vacuums meaning “empty” and, unfortunately, vacuoles are created in many formulations and photographs.


The fact that the vacuoles are filled with fluid and that different vacuoles in the same cell may contain different chemical compounds is usually not visible.



Flexible space, but never empty space

A membrane barrier called a tonoplast restricts each vacuole. This membrane is unusual because it can surround a small amount of liquid, and then, after a short time during which water is drawn, stretch to become an organelle occupying as much as 95% of the volume of the cell.



All this happens without losing the tonoplast as an active membrane. In this process, all other organelles in the cell are pressed, without damage, on the walls of cellulose cells.



The state of the plant cell vacuoles indicates whether the garden should be watered. It is believed that the cell in which the vacuole contains all the water needed is in the turgid state.


The wilt state shows a shortage of water and it is said that the cell has lost its turgor. A plant withering on a hot summer afternoon can “pick up” in the evening, but a plant wilting in the evening or in the morning needs water!


Vacuole supports growth

The relatively high hydrostatic pressure produced by vacuoles also helps in the elongation of cells, but only when the cell wall is soft enough for elongation to occur. Chemicals help create “cell pressure”
The chemical substances found in the vacuole forming the concentrated solution generate the hydrostatic pressure produced in the plant cells.


A few of these chemicals form ions, and the effect of this system is to create high osmotic pressure. This high osmotic pressure has the ability to “pull” the water molecules through the tonoplast until the cell becomes greasy.



The vacuolar membrane is a selective membrane

This membrane or tonoplast is a selective membrane and the passage of chemicals is controlled in both directions. Water can freely enter and exit, but other small molecules are retained in the vacuole.



Molecules also require admission tickets

Many proteins reaching the cytoplasmic surface of the vacuole synthesize ribosomal cells surrounded by a rough endoplasmic reticulum and transported to the vacuoles using the Golgi apparatus.


In the Golgi, they are combined with an “address label and ticket”. The “address” part of the label on the protein directs it to the vacuole, and the “ticket” part helps her get the introduction.



 The vacuolar membrane also acts as a proton pump

A part of the function of vacuole membrane acts as a proton because the pump and uses energy from adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to pump H + ions to the content of vacuoles. It maintains acidic conditions in it.


Keeping waste in place can attract and scare away Plants, unlike animals, do not have a well-developed excretory system, but they have vacuoles and vacuoles provide safe storage space.

When chemicals are processed in plants, they can be temporarily or permanently stored. This is often done in vacuoles.

The list of chemicals is extensive and contains pigments in flower petals, latex, digitalis, digitalis, alkaloids such as opium and chemical compounds in garlic.


Pigment flakes are clearly attractive and closely related to the pollination process because some chemicals in plants are unpalatable and have a deterrent effect on some animals. This can provide them with some protection before eating.



Vacuoles – equipment for the next generation

Proteins, fats, and carbohydrates can be safely stored in vacuoles of cells stored in seeds for many years for use when germination occurs.


Vegetative reproduction by tubers, rhizomes, and bulbs depends largely on the storage of food material in vacuoles for the next generation.



Lime and lysosomes have a similar function of the vacuole

Vacuum plant cells are in some respects equivalent to lysosomes in animal cells. The environment inside the vacuole is slightly acidic (pH about 5.0), while for the rest of the cytosol it is slightly alkaline (about 7.2).


Under these conditions, the enzymes of acid hydrolases in vacuoles break down large molecules sent there to remove them.




 This is certainly from the point of view of the ability to break down large molecules under acidic conditions. Vacuoles have the ability to contribute to the stiffness of the plant; for extending cells and for processing and storing waste. This makes them unique and separate organelles.