The trachea, called the trachea, is part of the transition that supplies air to the lungs. Any long-term blockage, even for a few minutes, can cause death. The trachea is approximately 4.5 inches long and 1 inch in diameter and consists of smooth muscle and several c-shaped c-shaped cartilages. Cartilage rings provide stability and help prevent trachea from collapsing and blocking the airways. The trachea stretches from the neck and divides into two main bronchi. Read more on the function of trachea.
Structurally similar to the trachea, the two main bronchi are found in the lungs. The right bronchus is slightly larger than the left one. For this reason, foreign objects inhaled into the lungs often go to the right bronchus. The bronchi are covered with the same type of mucus that lines the rest of the airways.
Deeper in the lungs, each bronchus is further divided into five smaller, secondary bronchi that supply air to the pulmonary lobes. Secondary bronchi still branch out to form tertiary bronchi, which are then divided into terminal bronchi. In each lung, there are as many as 30,000 small bronchioles. They lead to alveoli through alveolar channels.
function of trachea
1. Air conduction
The primary function of trachea is to provide air flow to the lungs for breathing, i.e. To breathe in oxygen-rich air and exhale carbon dioxide.
The trachea lining has a sticky mucous lining that stops foreign substances.
In function of trachea, these trapped substances are excreted upwards and can be excreted from the body in the form of phlegm or swallowed up in the esophagus. If a foreign object accidentally enters the trachea, the ciliated cells become irritated and cause a cough to expel the object.
When the air is cold, the trachea helps moisten and warm the air getting into the lungs.When the air is hot, the heat is discharged through the exhaled air by evaporating the water.
Four layers of tissues form walls of the trachea
While the trachea plays an important role as a passive air passage, it also performs several other important function of trachea. The tracheal brain in the posterior wall allows contraction of the trachea and reduces its diameter, which makes a cough more rapid and productive. When swallowing food, the esophagus expands to space usually occupied by the trachea. Incomplete rings of the tracheal cartilage allow it to contract and allow the esophagus to penetrate into its space. Finally, the loose combination of przydanka allows the trachea to move around the neck and chest, helping the lungs expand and contract during breathing.
In other function of trachea, the mucous membrane is the innermost layer and consists of a bloodstained pseudo-stretched columnar epithelium with many goblet cells. Goblet cells produce a sticky mucus to cover the inner trachea lining and catch any contaminants present in the inhaled air before they reach the lungs. On the surface of the columnar cells, long hair-like cilia beat together to push the mucus out of the lungs like a microscopic belt conveyor.
Deep into the mucous membrane is a submucosa layer that consists of a colic connective tissue containing blood vessels and nerve tissue. Many collagen, elastin and reticulin fibers provide soft support and flexibility to the tracheal wall, while blood vessels and nerves support other tracheal wall layers. The oblong smooth muscle fibers are present in the posterior trachea between the ends of the cartilage rings. This smooth muscular tissue allows the trachea to adjust its diameter if needed.
The submucosa is a layer of vitreous cartilage that forms the support rings of the trachea. Hyaline provides a strong but flexible structure that keeps the airways open and resists external stresses.
The outer layer of the trachea is adventitia, a layer of connective tissue that loosely anchors the trachea to the surrounding soft tissues.