The cytoplasmic cells are material in a living cell, excluding the cell nucleus. It contains cytosol (a gel-like substance encapsulated in the cell membrane) and organelles – internal cell substructures. The entire content of the cells, prokaryotic organisms (such as bacteria lacking the nucleus) is contained in the cytoplasm.

 

In cells of eukaryotic organisms, the content of the cell nucleus separate from the cytoplasm and then called nucleoplasm. The cytoplasm contains about 80% water and is usually colorless.

 

 

Cytoplasm functions

The jelly-like fluid that fills the cell is called cytoplasm. It consists mainly of water and salt. Cytoplasm occurs in the cell membrane of all cell types and contains all organelles and parts of cells. The cytoplasm has different functions in the cell.


In the cytoplasm function, Most of the cell’s important activities occur in the cytoplasm. The cytoplasm contains molecules, such as enzymes, which are responsible for breaking down waste, and also help in metabolic activity. The cytoplasm function is responsible for giving the cell its shape.

 

Cytoplasm Function

 

It helps to fill the cell and keeps the organelle in place. Without the cytoplasm, the cell would deflate and the materials would not be able to pass easily from one organelle to another. The Cytosol is a part of the cytoplasm that does not contain organelles. Instead, the cytosol bound from the boundaries of the matrix that fills the part of the cell that does not contain organelles.

 

Thanks to this network of fibers and high concentrations of dissolved macromolecules, such as proteins, a phenomenon called macromolecular accumulation occurs, and cytosol do not work as an ideal solution. This crowding effect changes the interaction of the cytosolic components.

 

 

organelles

In cytoplasm function, Organelles (literally “small organs”) are usually intracellular membrane structures that have specific functions. Some of the main organelles suspended in the cytosol are mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, vacuoles, lysosomes and plant cells, chloroplasts.


 

Cytoplasmic inclusions

The cytoplasm Inclusions are small particles of insoluble matter suspended in the cytosol. A huge range of inclusions exists in different types of cells and ranges from calcium oxalate crystals or silicon dioxide in plants, to granules of energy storage materials such as starch,  glycogen, or polyhydroxybutyrate.

 

Cytoplasm Function

 

Controversy and research

Cytoplasm, mitochondria and most organelles are contributions to the cell from the mother’s gametes. In contrast to older information that ignores any concept of active cytoplasm, new studies have shown that it controls the movement and flow of nutrients in cells and out through superplastic behavior and a measure of the inverse rate of bond breakage within the cytoplasmic network.

 

 

Cytoplasm function Physical nature

 It is not certain how the various components of the cytoplasm interact to allow the movement of particles and organelles while maintaining the cell structure.

 

The flow of cytoplasmic element plays a necessary role in many cellular functions. It depends on the permeability of the cytoplasm. An example of such a function is cellular signaling. It process dependent on the way in which signal molecules can diffuse through a cell.

 

While small signal molecules, such as calcium ions, are able to diffuse easily, larger molecules and subcellular structures often require assistance in moving through the cytoplasm.  The irregular dynamics of such particles gave rise to various theories regarding the nature of cytoplasm.


 

As a sol-gel

The cytoplasmic constituent molecules and structures behave sometimes like a disordered colloidal solution (sol), and at other times as an integrated network, creating a solid mass (gel).

 

This theory, therefore, suggests that the cytoplasm occurs in clear liquid and solid phases. It depends on the level of interaction between the cytoplasmic components, which may explain the differential dynamics of the various particles observed in the cytoplasm function movement.

 

 

As a glass fluid

Recently, it has been proposed that the cytoplasm behaves like a glass fluid approaching the glass transformation. In this theory, the higher the concentration of cytoplasmic components. The less cytoplasm behaves like a liquid and the more it behaves like solid glass.

 

The cell’s ability to weather in the absence of metabolic activity. In resting periods, may be beneficial as a defense strategy. The solid glass cytoplasm could freeze cell structures in place, preventing damage, while allowing the transmission of very small proteins and metabolites, helping to stimulate growth after the cell’s recovery from dormancy.

 

Other perspectives

Studies on the movement of cytoplasmic particles were carried out regardless of the nature of the cytoplasm. In this alternative approach, the aggregated random forces in the cell induced by motor proteins explain non-Browne movements of cytoplasmic components.