The main components of the computer system and its function are Processor Main memory Additional memory Input devices Output devices, the processor, auxiliary memory, power supply, and auxiliary equipment. Many components are connected to the main computer board, called the motherboard.



The power supply provides power for most components. Various input devices (such as the keyboard) and output devices (such as a monitor) are connected through the connectors at the back of the case.



main components of the computer system and its function



The motherboard


components of the computer system and its function


 The Motherboard is the heart of the computer. It is a circuit type board. The Peripheral devices connected to the input/output hub on the motherboard; critical hardware such as graphics card, central unit, and random access memory, installed on connectors on the surface of the board, located inside the casing.



Modern motherboards incorporate integrated components such as video and audio controllers that allow the computer to render graphics, play audio and other functions. The board has electrical circuits that provide power to any equipment connected to the motherboard.




CPU Processors


components of the computer system and its function

A processor also called a microprocessor, executes programming instructions. It consists of two critical components, a control unit and an arithmetic logic unit (ALU).


The control unit retrieves information from a mass storage device, such as RAM, and executes the code contained in the data. The processor uses the ALU to perform mathematical calculations and analyze logical operations.






components of the computer system and its function

RAM (random access memory), also known as system memory, contains data used by the computer. For example, when you open an application in Windows, the program is loaded into RAM, so that the processor has quick access to the coding instructions.


However, the data in the memory is temporary; RAM is referred to as an “unstable” storage device because all information on the system is lost when the computer is turned off.




Hard disk

components of computer system and its function
components of the computer system and its function

The hard disk, unlike RAM, is referred to as “non-volatile” because the data stored on the disk remains even when the computer loses power. Solid-state drives are high-end mass storage devices that serve the same purpose as hard drives, but instead use flash memory.


SSDs are faster and more efficient, but on the day of publication are also much more expensive. RAM obtains data from the hard disk; The CPU retrieves data from RAM.



Power Supply Unit


components of the computer system and its function

The power supply provides power to the computer and its devices. It connects to the motherboard, and the electric charge is distributed to the onboard devices via circuits or traces.


The power supply also connects directly to other hardware components, such as a hard drive and higher-end graphics cards, because often the electric charge provided by the motherboard is not sufficient to power these components.





You need a monitor and keyboard to be able to enter commands and view their results – as well as a mouse, a small device used to point and select items on the screen. Most computers have additional system parts, such as an optical drive that allows you to play and record music and video.



Short question and Answer for components of the computer system and its function


Question 1. What is a computer?

Answer: A computer is a programmable machine. It is an integral part of everyday life.

Question 2. What are the various components of the computer system and its function?

Answer: The computer performs the following functions; a) Accepting data b) Data processing c) Data storage d) Displaying data Question.


3. How does the minicomputer differ from the host computer?

Answer: A minicomputer is a multiprocessor computer and a multiple-access computer. But mainframe computers are huge computers, usually occupying entire rooms or floors. It is very expensive.


Question 4. What is a Super Computer?

Answer: The fastest type of computer. For example, weather forecasting requires a supercomputer. Other uses of supercomputers include animated graphics, fluid dynamic calculations, nuclear energy research, and oil exploration.


Question 5. Identify the input and output device?

Answer:  Examples of input devices are the keyboard, mouse, scanner, digital camera etc … while output devices include a monitor, printer, projector, etc.


Question 6. What is a storage device and  What is the common classification?

Answer: Different types of memory devices are) Magnetic devices. b. Optical devices. c. Solid-state storage devices.


Question 7. What do you mean by the processing device? or  What are the different types of components of the computer system and its function processing devices?

Answer: Data processing is the main function of the computer. Different types of processing devices in a computer are: a) Microprocessor b) Chipset c) BIOS.


Question 8. Distinguishes between serial and parallel ports?

 Most serial ports on personal computers are compatible with RS-232C or RS-422 standards. A parallel interface for attaching an external device, such as a printer.


On personal computers, the parallel port uses a 25-pin connector (type DB-25) and is used to connect printers, computers and other devices that require relatively high bandwidth. It uses parallel data transmission.


Question 9. What are the interface components of the computer system and its function?

Answer: This is a communication channel that allows the computer to exchange information with various devices.


Question 10. What is a microprocessor?

Answer: the most important electronic component on your computer. It is a programmable logic device for data processing.