Acid rain effects on plants and Soil poisoning with acid rain

Acid rain defines as any amount of precipitation that has a certain level of toxic metals or chemicals. Although acid rain may be caused by volcanic gas, acid rain is also caused by the release of sulfur and nitrogen dioxide from the production of fossil fuels.


When these particles release into the air, they can accumulate in wet areas and include in the rain cycle. Acid rain is an increasing problem in America and Europe, causing government agencies to instill laws and programs to counter the negative effects of acid rain.



acid rain effects on plants

Reduced pH level in the water

Acid rain may make the water in the lakes and streams more acidic and lead away toxic amounts of aluminum to the water system.

Many aquatic animals cannot grow in a low pH environment. The death of aquatic animals causes that other animals in the habitat lack food, which deprives the ecosystem of equilibrium.



Damage to forests and plants

Acid rain effects on plants can destroy the leaves of trees and plants, limiting their growth and exposing them to metals in the air from toxic rain. Depending on the degree of damage, vegetation may be inhibited in its growth or the leaves may be removed. Damage can also destroy the plant’s ability to cope with cold or disease.


Acid rain effects on plants



Soil poisoning

When acid rain absorbs into the soil, the soil becomes more acidic, which dissolves the helpful minerals in the soil. Acid rain also releases toxic substances into the soil, such as aluminum, and poison vegetation. The effect of these injuries decreases under certain conditions, such as having a thick layer of soil and having certain types of underground rock underneath to absorb rain.



Damage to the bodily functions

When fish are exposed to acid rain, disturbing levels of minerals in fish will affect their reproductive system, and females will not release eggs. When some fish are in the water with a very acidic pH, the mucus on their gills will become very sticky and eventually clog together, making them unable to get oxygen from the water.


Acid rain effects on plants



Case study

In the Netherlands, a study conducted on the exact impact of acid rain on a given habitat. They noticed that acid rain leached calcium from the soil.

It was the main source of calcium for snails in this environment. Soon, the snails became extinct, which was the main source of calcium for birds in this habitat. Birds had to look for calcium in other sources, such as insects. The birds were unable to receive a significant amount of calcium and began to lay defective eggs

Nucleus Function | Caudate & Subthalamic Nucleus

Cellular nucleus membrane associated with double membrane cells found in eukaryotic cells. The nucleus is the majority of the cell’s genetic material – DNA. The nucleus maintains the integrity of genes that regulate gene expression, in turn regulating nucleus function. Therefore, the nucleus is known as the cell control center.



Nucleus Function

Controls the inheritance characteristics of the organism.
It is liable for protein synthesis, cell division, growth, and differentiation.
It stores hereditary material in the form of deoxyribonucleic acid strands (DNA) and also stores proteins and ribonucleic acid (RNA) in the nucleolus.



This is the place for the transcription process in which messenger RNA (m RNA) is produced for the synthesis of proteins. It helps in the exchange of DNA and RNA (heredity materials) between the nucleus and the rest of the cell. Nucleolus produces ribosomes and is known as protein factories.
It also regulates the integrity of genes and gene expression.



Nucleus cell division

The nuclear envelope allows the nuclear to control its contents and, if necessary, separates them from the rest of the cytoplasm. This is important for controlling processes on both sides of the nuclear membrane.


Nucleus Function


In most cases, when the cytoplasmic process needs to be limited, the key participant is removed to the nucleus where it interacts with transcription factors to reduce the production of some enzymes in the pathway. This regulatory mechanism occurs in the case of glycolysis, i.e. a cellular route for breaking decrease glucose to produce energy.



Hexokinase is the enzyme responsible for the first stage of glycolysis, forming glucose-6-phosphate from glucose. At high attentiveness of fructose-6-phosphate, a molecule produced later from glucose-6-phosphate, the regulatory protein removes hexokinase to the nucleus, where it forms a complex of a transcriptional repressor with nuclear proteins to reduce the expression of genes involved in glycolysis.




To control which genes are transcribed

the cell separates some of the transcription factor proteins responsible for regulating gene expression from physical access to DNA until they are activated by other signaling pathways.


This averts even low levels of inappropriate gene expression. For example, in the case of NF-κB-controlled genes that are involved in the majority of inflammatory reactions, transcription is induced in response to a signaling pathway, such as initiated by a TNF-a signaling molecule.


The binds to the cell membrane receptor, causing signal protein recruitment. and finally activating the NF-κB transcription factor. The nuclear localization signal on the NF-κB protein allows its transport through the nuclear pore and to the nucleus, where it stimulates the transcription of target genes.



Caudate Nucleus Function

Each of the cerebral hemispheres contains a caudate nucleus, and both are centrally located and close to the basal ganglia. They are also located near a hill that is deep in the brain, close to the midbrain. Each nucleus has a broadhead that narrows in the body and the thin tail. As a whole, each nucleus is curved and often resembles a “C” in shape.

Caudate Nucleus


The caudate nucleus plays an important role in brain science, in particular in the storage and processing of memories. It acts as a feedback processor, which means that it uses information from previous experiences to influence future actions and decisions.


This is important for the development and use of language. In particular, it is believed that communication skills are controlled mainly by the left pectoral tail and the hill.



Some brain specialists suspect that the nucleus may play a role in the development of the obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). If this is true, it probably appears because the nucleus is unable to control the transmission of anxiety and pulses between the thalamus and the orbitofrontal cortex, which changes the impact of this information on actions and decisions.



Subthalamic Nucleus Function

The hypothalamic nucleus is a small, oval part of the hypothalamus in the brain, made of gray matter. Functionally, this is part of the system of basic windings. As the name suggests (“sub”), located on the bottom side of the hill, which lies close to the center of the brain. Hypothalamic nucleus affects motor control, and can also play a role in psychological processes.


People with damage to hypothalamic nuclei show increased impulsivity and behavioral problems. Studies indicate that hypothalamic nucleus may be associated with problems such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder or addictive behavior.


 In the formation of the nucleus of the hypothalamus may actually help treat the symptoms of Parkinson’s disease. Especially in the case of motor function. Less conclusive results were obtained on mood disorders associated with Parkinson’s disease.


Function of Vacuole and Vacuole growth

Central vacuole is a cell organelle found in plant cells. Often it is the largest organelle in the cell. It is surrounded by a membrane and is used to store materials and waste. It also works to maintain adequate pressure in plant cells to provide structure and support for the growing plant.



Function of Vacuole

 The vacuole is filled with a membrane filled and with a liquid sack found in plant cells, including fungi. The vacuum can be large organelles occupying 30% to 90% of the cell by volume. It seems that the vacuum has three main functions of vacuole:

*contribute to the stiffness of the installation with water to create hydrostatic pressure. * store nutrients and non-nutritive chemicals
*break down complicated particles.


The name vacuole comes from the Latin word vacuus meaning “empty” and, unfortunately, vacuoles are created in many formulations and photographs. The fact that the vacuoles are filled with fluid and that different vacuoles in the same cell may contain different chemical compounds is usually not visible.

Flexible space, but never empty space

A membrane barrier called a tonoplast restricts each vacuole. This membrane is unusual because it can surround a small amount of liquid, and then, after a short time during which water is drawn, stretch to become an organelle occupying as much as 95% of the volume of the cell.


All this happens without losing the tonoplast as an active membrane. In this process, all other organelles in the cell are pressed, without damage, on the walls of cellulose cells.



The state of the plant cell vacuoles indicates whether the garden should be watered. It is believed that the cell in which the vacuole contains all the water needed is in the turgid state.


The wilt state shows a shortage of water and it is said that the cell has lost its turgor. A plant withering on a hot summer afternoon can “pick up” in the evening, but a plant wilting in the evening or in the morning needs water!


Vacuole supports growth

The relatively high hydrostatic pressure produced by vacuoles also helps in the elongation of cells, but only when the cell wall is soft enough for elongation to occur. Chemicals help create “cell pressure”
The chemical substances found in the vacuole forming the concentrated solution generate the hydrostatic pressure produced in the plant cells.


A few of these chemicals form ions, and the effect of this system is to create high osmotic pressure. This high osmotic pressure has the ability to “pull” the water molecules through the tonoplast until the cell becomes greasy.



The vacuolar membrane is a selective membrane

This membrane or tonoplast is a selective membrane and the passage of chemicals is controlled in both directions. Water can freely enter and exit, but other small molecules are retained in the vacuole.



Molecules also require admission tickets

Many proteins reaching the cytoplasmic surface of the vacuole synthesize ribosomal cells surrounded by a rough endoplasmic reticulum and transported to the vacuoles using the Golgi apparatus.


In the Golgi, they are combined with an “address label and ticket”. The “address” part of the label on the protein directs it to the vacuole, and the “ticket” part helps her get the introduction.



 The vacuolar membrane also acts as a proton pump

A part of the function of vacuole membrane acts as a proton pump and uses energy from adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to pump H + ions to the content of vacuoles. It maintains acidic conditions in it. Keeping waste in place can attract and scare away Plants, unlike animals, do not have a well-developed excretory system, but they have vacuoles and vacuoles provide safe storage space.

When chemicals are processed in plants, they can be temporarily or permanently stored. This is often done in vacuoles. The list of chemicals is extensive and contains pigments in flower petals, latex, digitalis, digitalis, alkaloids such as opium and chemical compounds in garlic.


Pigment flakes are clearly attractive and closely related to the pollination process. Some chemicals in plants are unpalatable and have a deterrent effect on some animals. This can provide them with some protection before eating.

Vacuoles – equipment for the next generation

Proteins, fats, and carbohydrates can be safely stored in vacuoles of cells stored in seeds for many years for use when germination occurs. Vegetative reproduction by tubers, rhizomes, and bulbs depends largely on the storage of food material in vacuoles for the next generation.



Lime and lysosomes have a similar function of the vacuole

Vacuum plant cells are in some respects equivalent to lysosomes in animal cells. The environment inside the vacuole is slightly acidic (pH about 5.0), while for the rest of the cytosol it is slightly alkaline (about 7.2). Under these conditions, the enzymes of acid hydrolases in vacuoles break down large molecules sent there to remove them.




 This is certainly from the point of view of the ability to break down large molecules under acidic conditions. Vacuoles have the ability to contribute to the stiffness of the plant; for extending cells and for processing and storing waste. This makes them unique and separate organelles.

Ceres facts and mysterious of amazing bright spots

1. This was the first asteroid to discoveries was first noticed on January 1, 1801, by the Sicilian astronomer Giuseppe Piazzi. The asteroid was found after Piazzi had carried out a mathematical prophecy (later determined to be false) that there should be a planet between Mars and Jupiter.


Initially, Ceres was called the planet, but when more asteroid belts were discovered, Ceres was relegated to the asteroid. His status changes again in 2006 when these promote to the dwarf planet – classification, which he shares with Pluto.

2. It was named in honor of the Roman goddess of agriculture
Piazzi called his discovery of Ceres after the Roman goddess of harvest and corn. Cerium is the most abundant of rare earth metals, as the encyclopedia says and (among other things) is the product of cleavage of plutonium, thorium, and uranium.



Other Ceres facts

3. Has mysterious bright spots Dawn raced toward the dwarf planet at the end of 2014 and early 2015, the Astronomers found two unexpected bright spots at about 19 degrees North latitude on Ceres, inside the crater. There seem to be no mounds or elements near these places, suggesting that they are not of volcanic origin.


Bright spots indicate a highly reflective material, probably water ice or salts – say the researchers. Members of the Dawn team hope that the spacecraft will solve the mystery.


Ceres facts


4. Ceres may have a water vapor plume
Herschel’s astronomical observatory has recently noticed the water vapor emanating from Ceres. The fumes could also sublimate when the meteorite hits the exposed subsurface ice into space.

5. Ceres can be a place of the subsurface ocean

Geysers from water vapor would indicate the presence of the subsurface ocean on Ceres, which may be able to support life as we know it, say some scientists.


It believes that the icy moons of the outer solar system, such as the Jovian Europa satellite and Saturn’s moon, Enceladus, have underground oceans that are apparently kept fluid by the tidal forces generated by the gravity of neighboring moons and their large host planets. Ceres facts would not have experienced such tidal forces but could keep radioactive heat from the elements inside him.


6. It’s round
Unlike other members of the asteroid belt, Ceres is round because it is large enough for gravity to form its shape into a sphere.


Scientists also believe that round bodies have different interiors, meaning that there are different zones inside. Ceres probably has a rocky core, an ice cloak, maybe some subsurface liquid water and a dusty top layer.


7. It has an atmosphere Ceres is relatively far away from the Sun, but scientists believe that its surface temperature can increase up to minus 37 degrees Fahrenheit (minus 38 degrees Celsius).


If there is ice water on the surface, it will quickly sublimate – it will change directly to gas – which can create an atmosphere around the dwarf planet. That said, only a few sublimation observations so far. Dawn will be looking for something more.

Uranus Facts | Major facts about Uranus and their Orbit,Atmosphere

Uranus, named after the father of the Roman god Saturn, is the seventh planet in the solar system and the third of gas giants. It is the third largest planet with a diameter and at the same time the fourth most massive planet.





William Herschel discovered Uranus in 1781. The planet is too weak for an ancient civilization to see. Herschel himself believed that Uran was originally a comet, but a few years later he was confirmed as a planet – making Uranus the first planet discovered in modern history. The original name proposed by Herschel was “Georgian Sidus” after King George III, but the scientific community did not take it.


Uranus revolves around its own axis once every 17 hours and 14 minutes. Like Venus, it rotates in the reverse direction, which is opposite to the direction of the Earth, and the other six planets rotate.



Uranus needs 84 days on Earth to circumnavigate the Sun. Its axis is 98 degrees, which means it almost lies sideways as it revolves around the Sun. This means that the northern and southern poles of Uranus lie near the equator on Earth.


The Uranus facts, The collision could have caused Uranus’ unusual inclination. The theory is that planet Earth could collide with Uranus, which forced the axis to drastically shift.



Uran’s wind speeds can reach up to 900 km per hour. That’s about 560 miles an hour.
The Uranian mass is about 14.5 times the Earth’s mass, making it the lightest of the four gaseous giants of the outer Solar System.



Uranium is often referred to as the “ice giant”. Although it has a water layer and helium higher than other gaseous giants, Uranus also has an ice cloak that surrounds its stone and iron core. The upper atmosphere of water, ammonia and methane ice crystals gives Uranus a characteristic pale blue color.



Uranus is the second least dense planet in the solar system after Saturn.
Voyager 2 is the only spacecraft to fly through Uranus. It happened in 1986 and flew around the planet about 81,500 km. This mission drew the first similar images of the planet, its ring system, and its moons in orbit.



Uranium has 13 currently known rings. All except the two Uranians are extremely narrow – they usually have a width of several kilometers. It believes that the rings are probably quite young. The matter in the rings is thought to be part of the moon or moon that has been broken by high-velocity impacts with an object such as a comet or asteroid
The chemical element Uranus facts, discovered in 1789, was named after the newly discovered planet Uranus.



Uranus is the coldest planet in the solar system. The minimum surface temperature of Uranus is -224 ° C – making it the coldest of the eight planets. The upper atmosphere is covered with a mist built mainly of methane, which hides storms taking place in the clouds.

Uranus facts
Uranus facts


Another Uranus facts, The Uranus moons are named after characters created by Alexander Pope and William Shakespeare. For example Oberon, Titania, and Miranda. All these worlds are frozen with dark surfaces, and some are a mixture of ice and rocks. The most interesting of Uranian moons are Miranda, which has ice canyons, terraces, and many strange looking surfaces.



Atmosphere Uranus Facts

Because of its raw blue appearance, the atmosphere of Uranus was much more difficult to observe that, for example, Jupiter or even Saturn. Fortunately, the Hubble Space Telescope gave much more information about the structural nature of the Uranian atmosphere.


Thanks to more advanced imaging technologies than Earth or Voyager 2 telescopes, Hubble has shown that there are parallel latitudinal bands similar to those found on other gaseous giants. In addition, the winds associated with these bands can reach speeds of over 576 km / h.


The reason for the monotonous mood is the composition of the highest atmosphere layer. Visible cloud layers consist mainly of methane, which absorbs the visible wavelength corresponding to the red color. So the reflected waves are blue and green.


Under this external methane layer, the atmosphere consists of approximately 83% hydrogen (H2) and 15% helium with traces of methane and acetylene. This composition is similar to that of other gas giants.


The atmosphere of Uranus is drastically different in other respects. While the atmosphere of Jupiter and Saturn is mainly gaseous, Uranium contains much more ice. This means that the atmosphere of Uranus is extremely cold. Indeed, at about -224 ° C, its atmosphere is the coldest in the Solar System.



Interior Uranus Facts

The interior of Uranus consists of two layers: the core and the mantle. Current models suggest that the core consists mainly of rocks and ice and has a mass of about 55 Earth masses. It is believed that the planet’s coat is 8.01 x 1024 kg or about 13.4 times more than the Earth’s mass.


In addition, the coat consists of water, ammonia and other volatile components. What distinguishes Uranus’ mantle from Jupiter and Saturn is that it is icy, though not in the traditional sense. Instead, the ice is very hot and thick. The coat has a thickness of 51.1 km.


What is most surprising in the interior of Uranus and one of the most distinguishing features in relation to other gas giants is that it does not emit more energy than it receives from the Sun. Considering that even Neptune, which is very similar to Uranus, produces about 2.6 times the amount of heat it receives from the Sun, scientists are very intrigued by the low heat that Uranus generates.


There are two popular theories of this phenomenon. The first one says that Uranus was hit by a large body, dissipating in space most of the heat that usually keeps the planets from their formation. The second theory claims that there is a barrier that prevents internal heat from entering the surface of the planet.

Orbit Uranus Facts

When Uranus facts were discovered, it increased the radius of the known solar system almost twice. This means that the Uran orbit has an average of about 2.87 x 109 km.


The consequence of such a huge distance is that the sunlight needs about two hours and forty minutes to reach Uranus and it is almost twenty times longer than sunlight reaches the Earth! This huge distance also means that the year on Urana lasts almost 84 Earth years!


At 0.0473, Uranus’s orbital eccentricity is slightly less than Jupiter’s eccentricity of .484, making it the fourth most orbiting planet on all planets. As a result of the rather small Uranus orbital ecosystem, the difference between its perihelion of 2.74 x 109 km and the appeal of 3.01 x 109 km is only 2.71 x 108 km.


Perhaps the most interesting thing about Urana is how odd its turnover is compared to all other planets. The axis of rotation for each planet other than Uranus facts is roughly perpendicular to their orbital plane. However, the Uranian axis is tilted almost by 98 °, which means that Uranus rotates on its side.


As a result, the North Pole of Uranus points to the Sun for half a year, while the South Pole points to the Sun for the second half of the year.  What’s more, because of this extreme rotation. The Uranus does not have days like those on other planets, and that is, the sun does not rise and does not set on other planets.


Rings Uranus Facts

Although Saturn’s rings have been known for some time, it was not until 1977 that the rings of the planets surrounding Uranus were discovered. The reason for this is twofold: distance from the Earth and low light reflectance.


Nevertheless, the Voyager 2 probe identified two more on its mission in 1986, followed by the discovery by the Hubble Space Telescope of two additional rings in 2005. The total number of known rings is now at the age of thirteen, of which the largest and the brightest is the ring epsilon.


Uranus rings differ from the rings around Saturn in both particle size and particle composition. First, the particles that make up Saturn’s rings are small, while Uranus facts on rings contain many bodies with a diameter of up to twenty meters. Second, Saturn’s ring particles are largely made up of ice. Uranus, however, consists of both ice and significant dust and debris.


Facts about Jupiter

Named after the Roman king of the gods, Jupiter fits his name. With a mass of 1.90 x 1027 kg and an average diameter of 139 822 km, Jupiter is easily the largest and most massive planet in the solar system. To look at it in perspective, it would take 11 Earths side by side to extend from one side of Jupiter to the other, and it would take 317 Earths equal to the mass of Jupiter. Read more about Jupiter facts.



The first recorded observations of Jupiter were made by the ancient Babylonians around 7 or 8 BC. The name comes from Jupiter, the king of Roman gods and the god of heaven. The Greek equivalent is Zeus, the god of thunder. For Mesopotamia, he was the god Marduk and the patron of the city of Babylon. Germanic tribes viewed the planet as Donar, also known as Thor.



The Jupiter facts, When Galileo discovered the four moons of Jupiter in 1610, it was the first evidence of celestial bodies orbiting something other than Earth. The discovery also provided further evidence for the Copernican model “focused on the sun”.



Jupiter has the shortest day of the eight planets. The planet rotates very Jupiter rotates very fast, turning its axis once every 9 hours and 55 minutes. This rapid rotation is also the reason for the flattening of the planet, which is why it has a flattened shape.



Other Jupiter facts, One orbit of the Sun occupies Jovian 11.86 earth years. This means that while watching from Earth, the planet moves very slowly in the sky. Jupiter needs several months to go from one constellation to the next.



Jupiter has a weak ring system around him. Its ring consists mainly of dust particles from some moons of Jupiter when hit by comets and asteroids. The ring system begins about 92,000 km above Jupiter’s clouds and reaches over 225,000 km from the planet. The rings have a thickness of 2000 to 12 500 km.



Jupiter has at least 67 moons on a satellite around the planet. This applies to four large moons called the Galilean moons, which were first discovered by Galileo in 1610.



Another Jupiter facts, The largest of the moons of Jupiter, Ganymede is the largest moon in the solar system. The moons are sometimes called Jovian satellites, the largest of which are Ganymede, Callisto, Io, and Europa. Ganymede is larger than the planet Mercury with a diameter of approximately 5,268 km.



Jupiter has a very strong magnetic field. It is about 14 times stronger than the magnetic field found on Earth – the largest of any planet in the Solar System.



Jupiter is the fourth brightest object in our Solar System. After the Sun, Moon, and Venus, Jupiter is the brightest and is one of the five planets that can be seen with the naked eye from Earth.



Jupiter is the only planet that has the center of mass with the Sun, which lies beyond the volume of the Sun, though only by 7% of the Sun’s radius.



Jupiter has a very unique cloud layer. The upper atmosphere of the planet is divided into zones and stripes of clouds, which are made of ammonium crystals, sulfur and a mixture of these two compounds.



Eight spacecraft have visited Jupiter so far. These are the Pioneer 10 and 11 missions, Voyager 1 and 2, Galileo, Cassini, Ulysses and New Horizons. The next mission, Juno, is to come to Jupiter in the vicinity of July 2016. Future missions are also planned, which will focus on Jupiter – Jupiter – Europe, Ganymede and Callisto – and their possible ocean subsets.

Jupiter facts
Jupiter facts


Jupiter does not experience the seasons like other planets, such as Earth and Mars. This is because the axis is inclined only by 3.13 degrees.



The huge red spot of Jupiter is a huge storm that has been raging for over 300 years. This storm is so wide that three Earths would fit in it.



If Jupiter became 80 times more massive, nuclear synthesis would take place in the nucleus. If it did, it would become a star instead of a planet.


Even more provocative is the theory that Jupiter is a failed star. Current scientific knowledge suggests that if Jupiter was actually about 80 times more massive, nuclear fusion would have occurred in its core; in this way, Jupiter would become a star, not a planet. Regardless, it is still tempting to look at the number of satellites orbiting Jupiter and to consider her and her moons in many ways the mini solar system.

Although our scientific knowledge of Jupiter has been greatly expanded due to the numerous planetary missions beginning in the 1970s, these missions are not necessary to view the surface of the planet. Instead, most of these features can be observed with ground telescopes. For example, it was not until 1994 that the Hubble Space Telescope provided amazing images of the impact of Shoemaker-Levy 9 on Jupiter.


Atmosphere Jupiter Facts

The vertical dimension (i.e., Thickness) of Jupiter’s atmosphere is more difficult to define than terrestrial planets. For example, while the lower limit of the atmosphere on Earth is its constant planetary surface, there is no equivalent on Jupiter. Essentially, Jupiter’s atmosphere passes from the gaseous outer zone into the liquid layer of the planet. However, for practical reasons, scientists have set the depth at which the atmospheric pressure is equal to ten times the sea level pressure on Earth as the “surface” of Jupiter.


These layers of atmosphere visible to telescopes on Earth are divided into lighter and darker horizontal bands. Scientists believe that these bands are layers of high and low pressure. As a result, storms often develop on the boundaries between two neighboring bands. The Great Red Spot, visible in the southern hemisphere of Jupiter, is one of those storms. Surprisingly, this storm has been raging for ages and is 25,000 km in diameter – it’s big enough to hold two planets!


The composition of Jupiter’s atmosphere is very interesting. Approximately 90% hydrogen and 10% helium, Jupiter’s composition is almost the same as the Sun. The only difference between them is that the sun is much more massive than Jupiter. This composition confirms the theory that Jupiter could have been a star.



Interior Jupiter facts

It is believed that the interior of Jupiter facts consists of three regions. The first is a rocky core composed of various elements with a mass from 12 to 45 times greater than the mass of the entire Earth. The core is surrounded by a second area, a layer of electrically conductive liquid hydrogen. Because of this layer, which contains most of the planet’s mass, Jupiter has such a strong magnetic field. The third region consists of ordinary hydrogen with traces of helium that goes into the atmosphere of the planet.


The fascinating property of Jupiter is that it emits more energy than it receives from the Sun. This is because the planet is so massive. As a result of such a mass, Jupiter exerts a strong force of gravity, which causes the compression of the planet as a whole. The cumulative effect of all this force inward is the generation of a large amount of heat, which is then emitted into space.


Orbit Jupiter facts

With an average orbital distance of 7.78 x 108 km, Jupiter is five times as large as the distance from Earth to the Sun. This means that sunlight reaches Jupiter about 43 minutes. Also, the eccentricity of Jupiter’s orbit .04838 is the fourth largest planet, giving it perihelion of 7.41 x 108 km and aphelion 8,16 x 108 km. The year of Jupiter has about 4333 earth days – it’s about 12 times more than one earth year! The Jovian axis of 3.17 ° is extremely small and the second lowest in the solar system behind Mercury. This means that Jupiter does not experience seasons at all.


Two things stand out because of Jupiter’s rotation. The first is speed. In less than 10 hours, Jupiter has the shortest period in the Solar System. (Saturn is close to the second after 10.7 hours.) This fast rotational speed causes the planet to bulge near the equator, making it less spherical than most other planets. The second characteristic feature of Jupiter’s rotation is that various parts rotate at different speeds. This is due to the fact that Jupiter is not a solid body. For example, the polar atmosphere turns about 5 minutes slower than the one on the equator.



Rings Jupiter facts

Although Saturn’s rings are well known, it is rarely heard of Jupiter’s rings. Nevertheless, Jupiter has a ring system. Jupiter rings are less known than Saturn (or even Uranus), because they mainly consist of dust, making them difficult to see. It is believed that the formation of these rings occurred as a result of Jupiter’s gravity after taking the material ejected from its moons.

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Facts about Mercury

Mercury is the closest planet in the Sun and is also the smallest of the eight planets in our Solar System. For every 2 orbits of the Sun, which lasts about 88 terrestrial days, Mercury facts perform three revolutions of its axis. It is gravitationally blocked and this rotation is unique to the solar system.



Mercury has been known to humanity since ancient times, and although its date of discovery is unknown, the first mention of the planet is considered about 3000 BC by Sumerian.


The year in Mercury is 88 days, but Mercury day is 176 earth days. Mercury is almost completely closed on the Sun – also known as a gravitational blockage – and over time it slowed the rotation of the planet, almost adapting it to the orbit around the Sun.


Mercury revolves around the sun so fast that early civilizations believed they were two different stars – one that appeared in the morning and the other appeared in the evening. Mercury is the smallest planet in the solar system with a diameter of 4,879 km and is one of the five planets visible to the naked eye.



After Earth, Mercury is the second densest planet. Despite the small size, mercury is very dense, because it consists mainly of heavy metals and rocks – the main characteristics of terrestrial planets.


Mercury is named after the messenger of the Roman gods, who is also known as Hermes in Greek mythology. This is due to the speed at which mercury circulates around the Sun and the speed with which the mercury Roman deity could deliver messages.



The mercury facts, Astronomers did not realize that Mercury was a planet until 1543 when Copernicus published his solar-focused model of the Solar System – placing the Sun as the center of the solar system, and not the previously considered center, the Earth.



The planet has only 38% of gravity on Earth. This means that Mercury facts are unable to maintain the atmosphere it has and is instead destroyed by the solar wind. However, the same solar winds also bring new gases, radioactive decay, and dust from micrometeorites – complementing the atmosphere.



Mercury has no moons or rings due to low gravity and lack of atmosphere.
Once it was thought that there was a planet named Vulcan between the orbit of Mercury and the Sun – but the existence of such a planet was never found.



Mercury’s orbit is an elliptical rather than circular. According to scientists and astronomers, it has the most eccentric orbit in the solar system and the smallest round planet.



Other Mercury facts, This Planet is only the second hottest planet. Venus, though further from the Sun than Mercury actually experiences higher temperatures. This is because Mercury has no temperature-regulating atmosphere and causes the most extreme temperature change on all planets – from -170 ° C (-280 ° F) at night to 430 ° C (800 ° F) during the day. Mercury does not experience any seasons. Mercury’s axis has the smallest inclination on all other planets, and this causes the lack of seasons on its surface.



Mercury is the only planet that does not rotate exactly once a year – instead, it rotates three times for every two solar orbits. This is because it is almost completely closed in the sun.


Mercury’s orbit was important to prove the theory of general relativity of Albert Einstein.
Mercury has a large iron core, which is about 40% of its volume (compared to 17% of Earth’s core mass) at its center, whose radius is 1800 to 1900 kilometers (1100 to 1180 miles). 


The outer crust of Mercury is only 500 to 600 kilometers thick (310 to 375 miles). The outer crust (coat and crust) is 2930 kilometers (1819 miles) thick.



Mercury has a very thin atmosphere, which consists of atoms from the surface of the planet, which were broken by the solar wind. Because mercury is so hot, these atoms quickly escape into space, thanks to which the atmosphere is constantly replenished.

mercury facts
mercury facts

Mercury has a weak magnetic field whose strength is about 1% of the magnetic field on Earth.
Only two spaceships ever visited Mercury. It is difficult to reach the planet due to the proximity of the Sun, and the visit of spacecraft will require 91 million kilometers towards the gravitational potential of the Sun. Mariner 10 visited in 1974-75, flying Mercury three times and mapping half of its surface.



Mercury has more craters and impacts traces than any other planet. The surface is similar to the Moon because unlike most planets, Mercury is not geologically active and cannot “heal” from bumps with asteroids and comets. Most Mercurian craters are from famous writers and artists.




What’s intriguing about Mercury facts is our lack of knowledge of some of the key details until recently. For example, it was not until 1974 that the Mariner 10 probe recorded the first images that provided specific Mercurial surface details. In the past few years, unexpected discoveries about the atmosphere and interior of Mercury have questioned previously accepted theories.


Now is the exciting time of discovery and a new understanding of Mercury. On March 18, 2011, the MESSENGER spacecraft reached the orbit around Mercury in its annual mission.

Atmosphere Mercury facts

The mercury atmosphere is so thin that it practically does not exist. In fact, approximately 1015 times less dense than the Earth’s atmosphere, Mercury’s is closer to a real vacuum than any manmade vacuum ever created.


The explanation of the lack of a significant atmosphere is twofold. First, with the gravity of only about 38% of the Earth’s value, Mercury simply can not keep a lot of atmospheres. Secondly, the close proximity of the Sun and the Sun causes it to be constantly bombarded by the solar wind, which carries most of the small amount of atmosphere.


However, just as scarce as its atmosphere, Mercury has one. According to NASA, its chemical composition is as follows: 42% oxygen (O2), 29% sodium, 22% hydrogen (H2), 6% helium, 0.5% potassium and possibly trace amounts of argon, carbon dioxide water, nitrogen, xenon, krypton, neon, calcium (Ca, Ca +) and magnesium.


A remarkable result of such a rare atmosphere is extreme temperatures occurring on the surface of the planet. At a low temperature of around -180 ° C and a high of approximately 430 ° C. Mercury has the largest range of surface temperatures on any planet. The extreme highs on the side facing the Sun result from an inadequate atmosphere because they are unable to absorb solar radiation.


Surface Mercury facts

Until 1974, the surface of mercury remained, to a large extent, a mystery for scientists due to the close proximity of the Sun and the Sun. Being so close to the Sun limits the visibility of Mercury just before dawn or just after dark. In these times, unfortunately, the angle in which we see Mercury from the earth moves our line of sight through a significant amount of Earth’s atmosphere, which significantly hinders our view.


However, during the three flights of Mercury in 1974, the Mariner 10 probe captured clear and delightful photographs of the surface of the planet. Surprisingly, Mariner 10 photographed almost half of the planet’s surface during its mission! The results showed that Mercury’s surface has three important characteristics.


The first feature is the huge number of impact craters that have accumulated over billions of years. Caloris Basin is the largest of them with a diameter of 1550 km.


The meaning of these two features lies in what they imply.

Thanks to the presence of ancient lava fields, it is clear that volcanic activity existed at that time. However, given the number and age of the craters, scientists concluded that mercury facts were inactive geologically for a significant period.


The third part of the surface features also tells us a lot of interest.  The important thing about buckling Mercury facts is what it implies. The implication is that because the core of Mercury is shrinking, it is also the planet as a whole. Recent estimates show that Mercury’s diameter has decreased by more than 1.5 kilometers.

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Facts about Venus

Venus is the second planet from the Sun and the third brightest object in the sky of the Earth after the Sun and the Moon. Sometimes it’s called a sister planet on Earth because their size and mass are so similar. Venus is also the closest planet on Earth. The surface of Venus is hidden by an opaque layer of clouds that are formed from sulfuric acid. The planet is named Venus, the Roman goddess of love and beauty, and is the second largest terrestrial planet. Read more about Venus facts.





1. Venus is the second brightest natural object in the sky. The planet has an apparent size from -3.8 to -4.6, which makes it visible on a bright, clear day. The moon is the only natural object that is brighter.


2. The venus facts, Venus is sometimes referred to as the “morning star” and “evening star”. It comes from the times of ancient civilizations that believed that Venus is two distinct stars appearing in the sky. When the orbit of Venus is ahead of the Earth’s orbit, it changes from being visible at sunrise to being visible at sunset. They were known as Phosphorus and Hesperus by the Greeks, and Lucifer and Vesper by the Romans.

3. One day on Venus is longer than a year. Due to the slow rotation on the axis, one turnover takes 243 Earth days. The orbit of the planet takes 225 earth days.

4. Venus comes from the Roman goddess of love and beauty. This may be partly due to the brightness of the planet and may come back to the Babylonians in 1581, who referred to Venus as the “bright queen of heaven.”
The Venus facts are sometimes called the sister planet of the Earth. This is because their size is very similar (only 638 km in diameter), and Venus has about 81% of Earth’s mass. They are also in a similar position, and Venus is the closest planet on Earth. Both planets also have a central core, melted coat, and shell.

Venus has no moons or rings.

5. Other venus facts, Billions of years ago Venus’s climate was similar to Earth and scientists believe that Venus once had large amounts of water or oceans. However, due to the high temperatures generated from extreme greenhouse effects, this water has dissolved a long time ago, and the planet’s surface is now too hot and hostile to sustain life.

6. Venus revolves in the opposite direction than other planets. Most other planets rotate counter-clockwise on their axis, but Venus, like Uranus, rotates clockwise. This is called Reverse rotation that could have been caused by a collision with an asteroid or other objects that caused the planet to change its rotational path.

7. Another venus facts, Venus is the hottest planet in the Solar System with an average surface temperature of 462 ° C (863 ° F). In addition, Venus does not tilt on its axis, which means that there are also no seasons. The atmosphere is a dense 96.5% carbon dioxide that retains heat and causes a greenhouse effect that evaporated all water sources billions of years ago.

8. The temperature on Venus is not much different during the night and day. This is due to the slow movement of solar winds on the surface of the planet.

9. The estimated age of the Venusian area is about 300-400 million years. For comparison, the Earth’s surface is about 100 million years old.

10. Atmospheric pressure Venus is 92 times stronger than on Earth. This means that any small asteroids entering the atmosphere of Venus are crushed by enormous pressure, so there are no small surface craters on the planet. This pressure corresponds to about 1000 km below the Earth’s oceans.

11. Venus has a very weak magnetic field. This surprised the scientists who expected that Venus would have a magnetic field similar to Earth’s. One possible reason is that Venus has no permanent inner core or that its core does not cool.

Venus is the only planet in the solar system whose name comes from the female form.

12. Venus revolves around the Sun in the ellipse, but its orbit is the closest to the circle of all planets in the Solar System.
Venus is the nearest planet on Earth. When Venus is in line with the Earth and the Sun, it is the closest planet to us, averaging 41 million kilometers (25.5 million miles) from us.

venus facts
venus facts


Surface Venus facts

Due to the thick clouds surrounding Venus facts, the details of its surface cannot be obtained by simple photographic means. Fortunately, the researchers were able to use the radar mapping method to obtain this information. While both photography and radar imaging work, collecting the radiation that has bounced off the object, the difference lies in the accumulation of radiation. Photography collects visible light radiation, and radar mapping collects microwave radiation. The advantage of using radar mapping from Venus is that microwave radiation can penetrate the thick clouds of the planet, while the light necessary for the shooting is unable to do so.


The first radar mapping of the Venusian surface with the help of a spaceship appeared in 1978 when the space probe Pioneer Venus began to orbit the planet. What resulted from the maps obtained is a surface consisting mainly of plains formed by ancient lava flows, with only two mountain regions: Ishtar Terra and Aphrodite Terra.


In 1990,

The Magellan Probe began orbiting around Venus. In addition to performing a radar mapping similar to the Pioneer Venus mapping, Magellan also undertook more advanced radar imaging, which collected many minor details. What Magellan discovered were about 1,000 impact craters. Interestingly, none of the craters had a diameter of less than 2 km. This suggests that every meteoroid small enough to create a crater with a diameter of less than 2 km would fall apart and burn down during the passage through the dense atmosphere of Venus.


An additional observation regarding the size of impact craters has helped shed light on the age of the planet’s surface. Not only the small impact craters were absent from the surface of the planet, but also those with a large diameter. What it tells us is that the surface has been formed since the heavy bombardment, from 3.8 to 4.5 billion years ago, when a large number of impact craters were created on the inner planets. Geologically, the Venusian area is relatively young.



Atmosphere Venus facts

The atmosphere of Venus can be divided into two broad layers. The first is a cloud bank that effectively surrounds the entire planet. The second is all below those clouds.


The clouds surrounding Venus extend from 50 to 80 kilometers above the surface of the planet and consist mainly of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and sulfuric acid (H2SO4). These clouds are so dense that they reflect 60% of the sunlight that Venus receives back into space.


When testing the sub-atmospheric atmosphere, two characteristics are immediately visible: density and composition. What’s more, the impact of these two features on the planet is deep, which makes Venus the hottest and least hospitable of any planet in the Solar SystemFirst, with an atmospheric density of around 480 ° C. This makes the surface of Venus the hottest of any planet in the solar system.

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Facts about Saturn

Saturn is the sixth planet from the Sun and the second largest planet in the Solar System in terms of diameter and mass. If you compare, it’s easy to understand why Saturn and Jupiter were designated as relatives. From atmospheric composition to the rotation, these two planets are very similar. Because of these factors, Saturn was named after the father of the god Jupiter in Roman mythology. Read more about Saturn facts.





Saturn is the sixth planet from the Sun and the last planet known to ancient civilizations. This was known to the Babylonians and to the observer from the Far East.


Saturn is one of five planets that can be seen with the naked eye. It is also the fifth brightest object in the solar system.


In Roman mythology, Saturn was the father of Jupiter, the king of the gods. This relationship makes sense, considering that the planets Saturn and Jupiter are similar in many respects, including size and composition. The Greek equivalent is known as Kronos.


The most common pseudonym for Saturn is “The Ringed Planet”, a pseudonym coming from a large, beautiful and extensive ring system surrounding the planet. These rings are mostly made of pieces of ice and coal dust. They extend over 12,700 km from the planet but are only 20 meters thick.


Saturn gives off more energy than it receives from the Sun. It is believed that this unusual property comes from the gravitational compression of the planet in combination with the friction caused by a large amount of helium in its atmosphere.


Saturn takes 29.4 Earth’s years to circumnavigate the Sun. This slow motion against the stars has led the planet to name ‘Lubadsagush’ – or ‘the oldest of old’ – by the ancient Assyrians.


Saturn has the fastest winds of any other planet in our Solar System. These winds have been measured at around 1,800 km per hour (1,100 miles per hour).


Saturn is the least dense planet in the solar system. It is built primarily of hydrogen and has a density less than water – which in technical terms means that Saturn would float in the air. Hydrogen layers thicken further on the planet, eventually becoming metallic and leading to a hot inner core.


Saturn has 150 moons and smaller moons. All these moons are frozen – the largest of which is Titan and Rhea. The moon Enceladus also seems to have an ocean hidden under its frozen surface.


Saturn’s Moon Titan is the second-largest moon in the Solar System, after the moon of Jupiter Ganymede. It has a complex and dense atmosphere built mainly of nitrogen and consists of water ice and rocks. The frozen surface of Titan has liquid methane lakes and a landscape covered with frozen nitrogen. It is possible that Titan may be a port for life – but this life would not be like living on Earth.


Saturn is the flattest of the eight planets. With a polar diameter that is 90% of the equatorial diameter, The Saturn facts are the flattest of all planets. This is due to the low density of the planet and high speed – Saturn needs 10 hours and 34 minutes to turn on its axis.


Saturn has oval storms similar to Jupiter. Scientists believe that the hexa -agonal pattern of clouds around the Saturn’s the North Pole can be the pattern of waves in the upper clouds. At the south pole, there is also a whirl that resembles storms of hurricanes on Earth.


Most Important Saturn facts are known as a gas giant, but scientists believe it has a solid, rocky core surrounded by hydrogen and helium
Saturn and Jupiter together account for 92% of the total planetary mass in the solar system.
The interior of Saturn is very hot, reaching a temperature of 11,700 ° C (21,000 ° F).
Saturn is located 1 424 600 000 km from the Sun. It’s about 0.9 billion miles.

Saturn facts
Saturn facts


Unlike Earth, Saturn is an easily recognizable planet in the Solar System. The reason for this is obvious. Although other giants have a planetary ring system, none can match the magnitude and beauty found around Saturn.


Saturn is the last of the planets known to ancient civilizations. It is also one of the least understood in modern times. Thanks to the Cassini-Huygens planetary mission, which is currently underway, scientists hope not only to learn more about Saturn facts but also about Saturn’s moons and its planetary ring system.



Ring Saturn facts

Saturn’s ring system is most visible in the solar system. They consist mainly of billions of fine ice particles, with traces of dust and other impurities. This composition explains why rings are visible to telescopes on Earth – the ice is very reflective of sunlight.


Each ring is simply a collection of thousands of smaller rings packed very close together. In addition, there are gaps between each ring. At the length of 4700 km and occurring between rings A and B, Cassani is the biggest of these gaps.


The main rings start about 7000 km above Saturn’s equator and extend another 73,000 km. Interestingly, although this radius is significant, the actual thickness of the rings is no more than one kilometer. The most commonly used theory explaining ring formation is that a medium-sized moon orbiting Saturn broke down due to tidal forces when its orbit became too close to Saturn.



Atmosphere Saturn facts

Saturn’s atmosphere consists of approximately 96% hydrogen and 4% helium, with traces of ammonia, acetylene, ethane, phosphine, and methane. It has a thickness of about 60 km. In the highest atmosphere layer, the wind speed reaches 1800 km / h, which is one of the fastest in the entire solar system.


Although it is not as visible as on Jupiter, Saturn has a horizontally framed cloud pattern. What’s more, these bands are much wider near the Saturn equator than those found at Jupiter’s equator. These cloud patterns were unknown until the Voyager mission started in the 1970s. Since then, technology has grown to the point that terrestrial telescopes can now watch them.


 These are the storms on Saturn, which are analogous to the Great Red Spot on Jupiter, although they are much shorter. The Hubble Space Telescope has observed such a storm in 1990, although it was not on the Voyager spacecraft in 1981. Based on historical observations, it turned out that these storms are periodic, occurring approximately once into Saturn’s orbit.

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Facts about Neptune

Neptune is the eighth planet from the Sun and the last known planet. Although it is the third largest planet in terms of mass, it is only the fourth largest. Due to the blue coloring, Neptun was named in honor of the Roman god of the sea. Read more about Neptune facts.




The orbit achieved by the Sun lasts 164.8 years of the Earth. On July 11, 2011, Neptune completed its first full orbit since its discovery in 1846.

Neptune was discovered by Jean Joseph Le Verrier. The planet was not known to ancient civilizations because it is not visible to the naked eye. The planet was initially named Le Verrier after its discoverer. However, this name was quickly abandoned and the name Neptune was chosen instead.

Neptune is the Roman god of the sea. In Greek, Neptune is called Poseidon.
Neptune has the second highest gravity of every planet in the Solar System – only Jupiter is second only to it.
The orbital path of Neptune is about 30 astronomical units (AU) from the Sun. This means that it is about 30 times larger than the distance from Earth to the Sun.


The largest moon of Neptune, Triton, was discovered only 17 days after the discovery of Neptune itself.

Neptune has a storm similar to the Great Red Spot on Jupiter. It is commonly known as the Great Dark Spot and is more or less the size of the Earth.

Neptune also has a second storm called Small Dark Spot. This storm is similar in magnitude to the Earth’s moon.
Neptune rotates very fast on its axis. Equatorial clouds of the planet take 18 hours to perform one revolution. The reason for this is that Neptune facts do not have a solid body.

Only one spacecraft, Voyager 2, flew past Neptune. It happened in 1989 and captured the first rapprochements in the Neptune system. It took 246 minutes – four hours and six minutes – to get signals from Voyager 2 back to Earth.

The climate of Neptune facts is extremely active. In the upper layers of the atmosphere, powerful storms break through, and fast solar winds follow the planet at speeds of up to 1,340 km per second. The biggest storm was the Great Blind Spot in 1989, which lasted about five years.

Like other outer planets, Neptune has a ring system, although its rings are very weak. Most likely they consist of ice particles and dust grains, covering them with a carbonaceous substance.

Neptune has 14 known moons. The largest of these moons is Titan – a frozen world that releases particles of ice and nitrogen dust from its surface. It is believed that Titan has been caught by the huge gravitational pull of Neptune facts and is considered one of the coldest worlds in our solar system. Neptune has an average surface temperature of -214 ° C – around -353 ° F.

Neptune facts
Neptune facts


When scientific discoveries are made, there is often a debate (sometimes hot) that deserves recognition. The discovery of Neptune facts is one such example. Shortly after the discovery of the planet Uran in 1781, scientists noticed that its orbit had significant fluctuations that were not expected. To solve this mystery, they proposed the existence of another planet, whose gravitational field would be responsible for such orbital variances.



In 1845, the English astronomer John Couch Adams completed the calculation of the location of this unknown planet. Although he presented his findings to the Royal Society (the leading English scientific organization), his work met with little interest. However, a year later, the French astronomer Jean Joseph Le Verrier presented his calculations strikingly similar to the calculations of Adams. On September 23, 1846, German astronomer Johann Gall observed a new planet near the place where Adam’s calculations predicted and even closer to Le Verrier’s calculations.



Initially, Le Verrier was considered a discovery. As a result, an international dispute arose, with one faction defeating Adams and Le Verrier. However, this conflict was not divided between the two men. Eventually, the campaign on both sides cooled and both men received a loan.


Until the Voyager 2 flight in 1989, little was known about Neptune facts. This mission has provided new information on Neptune rings, the number of moons, atmosphere, and rotation. In addition, Voyager 2 discovered the essential features of the moon Triton. 



Atmosphere Neptune facts

Neptune’s upper atmosphere consists of 80% hydrogen (H2), 19% helium and trace amounts of methane. Unlike Uranus, Neptune is deeper than the blue one, which is why in Neptune’s atmospheres, which are not present in the Uranian atmosphere, there must be another atmospheric component.


The first seen during the Voyager 2 mission is Dark Spots. These are storms comparable to the Great Red Spot found on Jupiter. The difference between these storms, however, lies in their duration. 


The second of the two weather patterns observed by Voyager 2 is a fast-moving white storm system, called the Scooter. This type of storm system, which is much smaller than the Dark Spots, also seems short-lived. As with other gas giants, Neptune’s atmosphere is divided into latitudinal bands. The wind speed achieved in some of these bands is almost 600 m / s, the fastest known in the solar system.


Interior Neptune facts

The interior of Neptune facts, similar to Uranus, consists of two layers: the core and the mantle. The core is rocky and is estimated to be 1.2 times larger than Earth. The coat is an extremely hot and dense liquid consisting of water, ammonia, and methane. The coat has ten to fifteen masses of Earth.


Although Neptune and Uranus have similar interiors, they are quite clear in one way. While Uranus emits only the same amount of heat it receives from the Sun, Neptune emits almost 2.61 times the amount of sunlight it receives. To put it, the surface temperature of both planets is approximately equal, but Neptune receives only 40% of the sunlight that Uranus does. In addition, this large internal heat is also what drives extreme winds in the upper atmosphere.


Orbit and Rotation Neptune facts 

With the discovery of Neptune facts, the size of the known Solar System has doubled. At an average orbital distance of 4.50 x 109 km, sunlight reaches Neptune for almost four hours and forty minutes. What’s more, this distance also means that the Neptune year lasts about 165 Earth years!


The eccentricity of the Neptune orbit at 0.0097 is the second smallest from Venus. This small eccentricity means that Neptune’s orbit is very close to roundness. Another way of looking at this is to compare the Neptune perihelion by 4.46 x 109 km and its aphelion 4.54 x 109 km and note that this difference is less than two percent.


Like Jupiter and Saturn, Neptune rotates very fast compared to Earth’s planets. With a rotating period of just over 16 hours, Neptune has the third shortest day in the solar system.

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