Schizophrenia types & Major Symptoms,Causes,Diagnosis,Treatment

Schizophrenia is a chronic psychiatric disorder. People with this disorder experience distortion of reality, often experiencing illusions or hallucinations. Although accurate estimates are difficult to obtain, it is estimated that it affects about 1% of the population.


 Misunderstandings about this disorder are common. For example, some people think that it creates a “split personality”.Read below for schizophrenia types.


Schizophrenia can occur in men and women of all ages. Men often have symptoms in their late teens or in the early ’20s. Women show symptoms in the late 1920s and early 1930s. Here’s what you need to know.



schizophrenia types

Schizophrenia was once divided into five subtypes. Today, schizophrenia is one diagnosis. Names of different types help physicians and healthcare professionals plan treatment.


These Schizophrenia  types included:

Paranoid. In 2013, doctors stated that paranoia is a “positive” symptom of the disorder, not a separate one.


Hebephrenic or disorganized. This type has been diagnosed in people who have not experienced hallucinations or illusions but have disorganized speech or behavior.


Undifferentiated. Doctors have diagnosed people with this subtype who have shown more than one type of dominant symptom.


Residual. If someone was diagnosed with schizophrenia early in life, but the symptoms did not occur later, this subtype could be used for them.


Catatonic. As the name suggests, this subtype was diagnosed in people who showed signs of autism or who developed an effect similar to stupefaction.


Although these subtypes are no longer used to diagnose schizophrenia, you can read more about each of them and the symptoms that will classify them.

schizophrenia types
schizophrenia types


Diagnosis and tests of schizophrenia

There is not one test to diagnose schizophrenia. A full psychiatric test can help the doctor diagnose. You must see a psychiatrist or mental health specialist.

During the appointment visit, answer questions about:

Your medical history, mental health,  family medical history,
Your doctor can do the following: physical exam, blood work


imaging studies, including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computed tomography (CT). Sometimes there may be other reasons for your symptoms, even if they may be similar to schizophrenia. These causes may include:

The use of substances, some medicines, other mental illness


Your doctor can diagnose schizophrenia if you have at least two symptoms for one month. These symptoms must include:

hallucinations, illusions, speech disorganization



Treatment of schizophrenia

There is no cure for schizophrenia. Treatment can control or reduce the severity of symptoms. It is important to get treatment from a psychiatrist or mental health specialist who has experience in treating people with this disorder. You can also work with a social worker or case manager.


Possible therapies include:

Medicines Antipsychotics are the most common treatment for schizophrenia. Drugs can help stop:

hallucinations, illusions, psychosis symptoms If you experience psychosis, you can be hospitalized and treated under strict medical supervision.


Psychosocial intervention

Psychosocial intervention is another treatment option for all schizophrenia types. This includes individual therapy to help manage stress and illness.

Social training can improve your social and communication skills. Vocational rehabilitation can provide you with the skills you need to get back to work. This can make it easier to keep your regular job.


Alternative treatments for schizophrenia

Drugs are important in the treatment of all schizophrenia types. However, some people with disabilities may want to consider a supplementary medicine. If you decide to use these alternative treatments, make sure that treatment is safe in collaboration with your doctor.


The types of alternative treatments for schizophrenia include:

vitamin treatment, fish oil supplements, glycine supplements, diet management

brain stem stroke syndrome, Major Symptoms & types

Complications of brain stem stroke Striking the brain may result in a loss of sense of smell and taste. Other rare complications include coma and closed syndrome. The blocked syndrome is a condition in which your whole body, except for the eye muscles, is paralyzed. People are able to think and communicate using eye movements such as blinking. Read below brain stem stroke syndrome.



 Brain stem stroke syndrome

The stroke occurs when the blood supply to the brain is interrupted. The way a stroke affects the brain depends on which part of the brain is damaged and to what extent. Sitting just above the spinal cord, the brain stem controls your breathing, heartbeat and blood pressure. It also commands speech, swallowing, hearing and eye movements.


In brain stem stroke syndrome, Impulses sent by other parts of the brain move through the brainstem on the way to different parts of the body. For the sake of survival, we depend on brainstem function. Brain stroke threatens the body’s bodily functions, making him a life-threatening condition.



Two types of stroke

The most common type of stroke is an ischemic stroke caused by a blood clot. The clot may form in an artery that supplies blood to the brain. A clot that forms elsewhere can travel through blood vessels until it is trapped in the blood that supplies the brain. When the blood can not get into the part of the brain, the brain tissue in this area dies because it does not get oxygen.


In addition to blood clots, the dissection of arteries may also cause an ischemic stroke. Cutting the arteries is a tear in the artery that supplies blood to the brain. As a result of tears, blood can accumulate in the arterial wall and cause blood flow obstruction. This pressure can also lead the wall to crack, crack or leak. Another type of stroke is a hemorrhagic stroke. This happens when the weak blood vessel breaks, causing the blood and pressure in the brain to accumulate.


Typical symptoms of a stroke

The symptoms of stroke depend on which area of the brain is affected. Striking the brain can interfere with vital functions such as breathing and heartbeat. Other functions that we do without thinking, such as eye movements and swallowing, can also be changed.


Brain stroke may also interfere with speech and hearing and make you feel dizzy. All signals from your brain move through the brainstem to reach different parts of your body. Nerve cells from different parts of the brain carry these signals through the core of the brain to the spinal cord.


When the blood flow in the brainstem is interrupted, as in the case of a stroke, these brain signals are also disrupted. In turn, the impact on different parts of the body controlled by these signals. Therefore, some people feel numbness on one or both sides of the body or paralysis in the hands or legs.

Who can have a stroke?

Everyone can have a stroke, but the risk increases with age. The history of stroke or mini-stroke, also known as a transient ischemic attack, increases the risk. People over 65 make up two-thirds of all strokes.


Men and people of African-American, Latin, Asian or Pacific origin are also more at risk. However, women are more likely to die of stroke than men.

Other shapes that increase the risk of stroke include

high blood pressure, high cholesterol, diabetes,
cardiovascular disease, some blood disorders, pregnancy, tumor, autoimmune diseases


Risk factors related to lifestyle

Some factors that increase the risk of brain stem stroke syndrome are out of control. But many lifestyle options that can increase the likelihood of a stroke is not. These include long-term hormone replacement therapies and contraceptive pills. Women over the age of 35 who also smoke are, particularly at high risk.


Behaviors that increase the risk of stroke include:

smoking, lack of physical activity, alcohol abuse,
drug use such as cocaine, heroin, and amphetamines

Thalamic stroke Major (Symptoms), Causes, Treatment, Recovery

Thalamic stroke is a type of lumbar stroke that refers to a stroke in the deep part of the brain. Hill strokes occur in your thalamus, a small but important part of your brain. He participates in many key aspects of everyday life, including speech, memory, balance, motivation, and feelings of physical touch and pain.



 Symptoms of  Thalamic stroke

The symptoms of the thalamic stroke vary depending on which part of the hill is affected. However, some of the general symptoms of stroke include:


loss of feeling difficulties with movement or maintaining balance difficulty speaking loss of sight or disturbances sleep disorders lack of interest or enthusiasm changes in the scope of attention memory loss upper pain, also known as central pain, which is associated with burning or freezing, as well as intense pain, usually in the head, arms or legs.


Thalamic stroke causes

Strokes are classified as ischemic or hemorrhagic, depending on their cause. About 85 percent of all strokes are ischemic. This means that they are caused by a blocked artery in the brain, often due to a blood clot. In turn, hemorrhagic strokes are caused by a rupture or leakage of the blood vessel to the brain. The thalamic stroke may be ischemic or hemorrhagic.

 Risk factors Thalamic stroke

Some people have a greater risk of upper strokes. Things that increase risk are:

high blood pressure, high cholesterol, cardiovascular diseases, including arrhythmias or heart failure, diabetes, smoking history of a previous stroke or myocardial infarction.



Diagnosed Thalamic stroke

If your doctor thinks you can have a Thalamic stroke, it will probably start with an MRI scan or CT scan to determine the size of the lesion. They can also take a blood sample for further testing to check blood glucose levels, platelet counts, and other information.


Depending on your symptoms and the history of the disease, they can also perform an electrocardiogram to check for any cardiovascular conditions that may have caused your stroke. You may also need ultrasounds to see how much blood flows through the arteries.



How does it treat?

Thalamic stroke is an emergency medical emergency that requires immediate treatment. The specific treatment you will receive depends on whether the stroke was ischemic or hemorrhagic.


 Treatment of ischemic stroke Treatment of strokes caused by a blocked artery usually includes Drugs that dissolve a blood clot that restores blood to your hill Procedure for removing a blood clot with a catheter for larger clots Treatment of hemorrhagic stroke. Treatment of hemorrhagic stroke focuses on finding and treating the source of bleeding. After stopping bleeding, other treatments include:


stopping medicines that can thin your blood, drugs that lower high blood pressure, surgery to prevent the outflow of blood from a ruptured vessel, surgery to repair other defective arteries that may burst


What is a recovery?

After the thalamic stroke, full recovery can last from one to two months. Similarly, they can also prescribe blood pressure medication if you have high blood pressure. If you have a central pain syndrome, your doctor may prescribe amitriptyline or lamotrigine to help control your symptoms. Depending on your general health, you may also need medication for:

high cholesterol, heart disease, diabetes



Physical therapy and rehabilitation

Your doctor will probably recommend rehabilitation, usually within one or two days after the stroke. The goal is to re-acquire skills that you might lose during a stroke. About two-thirds of people with stroke require a certain level of rehabilitation or physiotherapy. The type of rehabilitation needed depends on the exact location and severity of the stroke.


Common types include: physical therapy aimed at compensating for physical disability, such as an inability to use one hand or rebuilding strength in limbs damaged by strokes speech therapy to help you regain lost speech skills cognitive therapy that helps in memory loss advice or join a support group to help you adapt to new changes and connect with others in a similar situation Lifestyle changes After the stroke, there is an increased risk of another.


You can help reduce the risk by: after a healthy diet for the heart. quitting smoking. regular exercises. managing your weight

Lacunar stroke symptoms | Major causes and treatment

A stroke happens when blood moves to the brain. Strokes caused by blockages in the blood vessels in the brain are called ischemic strokes. Lacunar stroke symptoms is a type of ischemic stroke that occurs when the flow of blood to one of the small arteries in the depths of the brain is blocked.


As state by the National Institutes of Health (NIH), lacunar strokes represent about one-fifth of all strokes. Any type of stroke is dangerous because the brain cells are deprived of oxygen and start dying within a few minutes.



lacunar stroke symptoms

The symptoms of a stroke usually appear suddenly and without warning. Lacunar stroke symptoms may include slurred speech inability to raise one hand it falls on one side of the face numbness.


It often only on one side of the body difficulty walking or moving your arms confusion problems with memory difficulty in speaking or understanding spoke language headache loss of consciousness or coma the brain cells die, they affect the functions controlled by this area of the brain. These lacunar stroke symptoms may vary depending on the location of the stroke.



What causes a lacunar stroke?

Lacunar stroke is caused by a lack of blood flow in the smaller arteries that provide deep brain structures. The most important risk factor for the development of lacunar stroke is chronic high blood pressure. The condition may cause narrowing of the arteries. This makes it easier for cholesterol plaques or blood clots to block the flow of blood into the deep tissues of the brain.


lacunar stroke symptoms
lacunar stroke symptoms MRI

Who is at risk of stroke?

The risk of a stroke in the lumbar region increases with age. People at risk are people with chronic hypertension, heart disease or diabetes. African Americans, Hispanics and people with familial stroke are also more at risk than other groups.


Additional factors that increase the likelihood of lacunar stroke include:

smoking or exposure to secondhand smoke, alcohol use, drug addiction, pregnancy, use of birth control pills, Sedentary lifestyle, bad diet, high cholesterol, obstructive sleep apnea.
It is important to conduct annual physical examinations for health problems that may increase the risk of stroke, including high cholesterol and obstructive sleep apnea.



How do you recognize the lacunar stroke symptoms?

For any type of stroke, urgent treatment is necessary, therefore immediate diagnosis is necessary. Your physician may check your blood pressure and ask about your symptoms. A detailed neurological test will be used to check for damage to parts of the brain that control your body functions.

If your symptoms are consistent with your stroke, immediate diagnostic tests will likely include a CT scan or MRI scan to perform detailed brain images. Doppler ultrasound can also be used.


This will measure the amount of blood flowing through the arteries and veins. You can request heart rate tests such as electrocardiogram and echocardiogram. You can also check your kidney and liver function and various blood tests.



What is the treatment of lacunar stroke?

If you have a stroke in the lumbar area, early treatment increases your chances of survival and can prevent further damage. When you arrive at the emergency room, you will probably receive aspirin and other medicines. This reduces the risk of another stroke.


It may be necessary to take actions to support breathing and heart activity. You can receive intravenous medicines to remove clots. Under extreme circumstances, the doctor can deliver drugs directly to the brain.


 Because of brain damage, stroke patients often have to re-learn skills and regain strength. It may take weeks, months or years. Most people who have a stroke require long-term treatment. This may include medicines used to treat high blood pressure, diabetes or high cholesterol.



After stroke lacunar, some people also require

physiotherapy in order to restore the function of occupational therapy to improve the skills needed for everyday life speech therapy to improve language skills.



What are the long-term prospects?

The quality of life after a lumbar stroke depends on many factors, including age and time of starting treatment after the onset of lacunar stroke symptoms. Disability is constant in some patients. They can be:

paralysis, numbness, loss of muscle control on one side of the body, tingling sensation in the affected limb.


Even after rehabilitation and recovery after stroke, some stroke victims have problems with short-term memory. Some may also have problems with thinking and reasoning. Controlling emotions can also be a problem. Some who have suffered a stroke also have depression.


Having a stroke in the lumbar area increases the risk of further strokes, which is why regular medical care is very important. According to the American Stroke Association, although the incidence of stroke is higher in men, women account for more than half the deaths per stroke in all age groups.



Lower your risk

Lacunar stroke symptoms is a life-threatening condition. Some risk factors, such as aging and family history, are outside your control, but certain lifestyle behaviors can have an impact on risk.


Maintain a healthy diet. Exercise daily for at least 30 minutes. Together, these habits can help reduce the risk of stroke. If you have high blood pressure, heart disease or diabetes, try to control it and regularly see a doctor. Do not smoke. And most importantly, you should ask for medical help for the first signs of stroke – every second is important.

Neurotransmitters function and List of Neurotransmitters and their types

A neurotransmitter is a chemical substance produced in the body. It is responsible for a process called synaptic transmission or neurotransmission. In this article, we will discuss the mechanism of neurotransmission, the classification of neurotransmitters and several clinical remarks on disorders related to the excessive and lack of some neurotransmitters function.



The neurotransmitters function

Excitatory neurotransmitters, these types of neurotransmitters have a stimulating effect on the neuron, which means that they increase the probability that the neuron will trigger a potential action. Some of the major excitatory neurotransmitters include adrenaline and norepinephrine.


Inhibitory Neutralizers, these types of neurotransmitters have an inhibitory effect on the neuron; they reduce the likelihood that the neuron will activate the action potential. Some of the major inhibitory neurotransmitters include serotonin and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA).


Some neurotransmitters, such as acetylcholine and dopamine, can produce both stimulatory and inhibitory effects depending on the type of receptors present.


Neurotransmitter Modulators, these neurotransmitters, often referred to as neuromodulators, are able to affect a larger number of neurons at the same time. These neuromodulators also affect the operation of other chemical transmitters. When synaptic neurotransmitters release from the axon, it rapidly interacts with other receptor neurons, neuromodulators diffuse over a larger area and operate more slowly.


neurotransmitters function
neurotransmitters function



Types of neurotransmitters

There are many different ways to classify and categorize neurotransmitters. In some cases, they simply divide into monoamines, amino acids, and peptides.

Neurotransmitters can also  divide into one of six types:
Amino acids

Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) acts as the main, inhibitory chemical relay of the body. GABA contributes to the vision, motor control and plays a role in the regulation of anxiety. Benzodiazepines, which help to cure anxiety, work by increasing the efficiency of GABA neurotransmitters, which can increase the feeling of relaxation and peace.


Glutamate is the most abundant neurotransmitter in the nervous system in which it plays a role in cognitive functions such as memory and learning. Excessive amounts of glutamate can cause excitotoxicity resulting in cell death. This excitotoxicity causes the accumulation of glutamate connects with some diseases and brain damage, including Alzheimer’s disease, stroke, and seizures.



Oxytocin is both a hormone and a neurotransmitter. It produces from the hypothalamus and plays a role in social recognition, binding, and sexual reproduction. Synthetic oxytocin, such as Pitocin, usually use as an aid in delivery. Both oxytocin and Pitocin cause uterine contraction during delivery.


Endorphins are neurotransmitters that inhibit the transmission of pain signals and promote a sense of euphoria. These chemical transmitters produce naturally with the body in response to pain, but can also trigger with other activities such as aerobic exercise.




Epinephrine is considered to be both a hormone and a neurotransmitter. In general, adrenaline (adrenaline) is a stress hormone released by the adrenal system.

Norepinephrine is a neurotransmitter that plays an important role in vigilance and it involves in the reaction of the body or flight. Its role is to mobilize the body and brain to act in times of danger or stress. The levels of this neurotransmitter are usually the lowest during sleep and the highest during stress.


Histamine proceeds as a neurotransmitter in the brain and spinal cord. It plays a role in allergic reactions and it produces as part of the immune response to pathogens.


Dopamine plays an important role in coordinating body movements. Dopamine also participates in rewards, motivations, and supplements. Several types of addictive drugs increase the level of dopamine in the brain. Parkinson’s disease, which is a degenerative disease that causes tremors and movement anxiety disorders, is caused by the loss of neurons that generate dopamine in the brain.


Serotonin plays a necassary character in regulating and modulating mood, sleep, anxiety, sexuality, and appetite. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors usually referred to as SSRIs. The type of antidepressant usually prescribed for the treatment of depression, anxiety, panic disorder, and panic attacks. SSRIs work to balance serotonin levels by blocking serotonin reuptake in the brain, which can help improve mood and reduce feelings of anxiety.



Adenosine acts as a neuromodulator in the brain and it involves suppressing arousal and improving sleep.

Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) acts as a neurotransmitter in the central and peripheral nervous system. It plays a role in autonomic control, sensory transduction and communication with glial cells. Research suggests that it may also affect some neurological problems, including pain, injury and neurodegenerative disorders.



Nitric oxide plays a role in relieving smooth muscle, relaxing it to allow blood vessels to expand and to increase blood flow in certain areas of the body.

Carbon monoxide usually knows as colorless, odorless gas that can have toxic and potentially lethal effects when people exposed to high levels of the substance. However, it is also produced naturally by the body. It acts as a neurotransmitter that helps to modulate the body’s inflammatory response.



Acetylcholine is the only neurotransmitter in its class. Both in the central and peripheral nervous system, the main neurotransmitter connects with motor neurons.



How neurotransmitters function work

For neurons to be able to send messages throughout the body, they must be able to communicate with each other to transmit signals. However, neurons do not simply connect to each other.


At the end of each neuron has a small gap, which is the synapse, and to be able to communicate with the next cell, the signal must be able to cross this small space. This happens in a process called neurotransmission.



In most cases, the function of the neurotransmitter is released from the so-called axon end after reaching the action potential, in a place where neurons can transmit signals to each other. When the electrical signal reaches the end of the neuron, it releases the release of small bags called vesicles that contain neurotransmitters.


These bags pour their contents into the synapse, where the neurotransmitters then move through the aperture towards the neighboring cells. These cells contain receptors in which neurotransmitters can bind and cause changes in cells.


After release, the neurotransmitters function cuts through the synaptic cleft and joins the receptor site on another neuron, either by stimulating or inhibiting the receiving neuron depending on what the neurotransmitter is.


The neurotransmitters function act like a key, and the receptor site acts as a lock. To open specific locks, you need the correct key. If the neurotransmitter is skillful to work on the receptor site, it triggers changes in the receiving cell.


Sometimes neurotransmitters function can bind to receptors and cause the electrical signal to pass down the cell (stimulation). In other cases, the neurotransmitter can actually block the signal from continuing.


What happens to the neurotransmitter after work?

As soon as the neurotransmitter achieves its intended effect, its activity can be stopped by various mechanisms. It can be degraded or deactivated by enzymes may drift away from the receptor. It can be taken back through the axon of the neuron, which released it in a process known as reuptake.


Neurotransmitters play an important role in everyday life and functioning. Researchers do not yet know exactly how many neurotransmitters function exist, but over 100 chemical relays have been identified.


Synapse neuron understanding working in the human brain

Synapse neuron is basically electrical devices. There are many channels in the cell membrane (the boundary between the cell inside and outside) that allow the flow of positive or negative ions into and out of the cell.


Usually, the inside of the cell is more negative than outside; neurologists say that the inside is about -70 mV in relation to the outside, or that the potential of the resting cell membrane is -70 mV.


This membrane potential is not static. It keeps going up and down, depending mainly on the input data from the axons of other neurons. Some input data make the neuronal membrane potential more positive (or less negative, e.g. -70 mV to -65 mV), while others do the opposite.


They are appropriately referred to as excitatory and inhibitory because they promote or inhibit the generation of action potentials (the cause of some stimulatory signals, while others inhibit the fact that different types of neurons release various neurotransmitters, and the neurotransmitter used by the neuron determines its action).


synapse neuron

Functional potentials are the basic units of communication between neurons and occur when the sum of all excitation and inhibitory signals causes the potential of the neuron membrane to reach about -50 mV (see graph), the value called the functional potential threshold.


Neuroscientists often define the action potentials as “jumps” or say that the neuron “fired” the spike “or” conquered. “This term is a reference to the shape of the action potential recorded using a sensitive electric current.



Synapse neuron
Synapse neuron



Synapses: how neurons communicate with each other

Neurons talk to each other through synapses. When the action potential reaches the presynaptic terminal, it causes the release of the neurotransmitter from the neuron to the synaptic cleft, a 20-40 nm gap between the presynaptic axon and the post-synaptic dendrite (often the spine).


After passing through the synaptic cleft, the transmitter will attach to the neurotransmitter receptors on the postsynaptic side and depending on the released neurotransmitter (which is dependent on the type of neuron released), the specific positive (e.g. Na +, K +, Ca +) or negative ion (e.g. Cl-) will pass through the channels extending along the membrane.


Synapse neuron can be thought of as transforming an electrical signal (action potential) into a chemical signal in the form of nerve relay release, and then, after binding the relay to the postsynaptic receptor, switching the signal back to the electrical form, just as charged ions flow to or from the postsynaptic neuron.



Concepts and definitions

Axon – A long, thin structure in which functional potentials are generated, the transmission part of the neuron. After initiation, the action potentials move down the axons, causing the release of the neurotransmitter. Dendrit – Receiving part of the neuron.


Dendrites receive synaptic input signals from axons. The sum of dendritic input signals determining whether the neuron will trigger the action potential. Spinal column – small protrusions occurring on dendrites, which for many synapses constitute the place of post-synaptic contact.



Diaphragm potential synapse neuron

The electric potential in the neuronal cell membrane, which arises due to different distributions of positively and negatively charged ions inside and outside the cell. The value inside the cell is always determined from the outside. 70 mV means that the interior is 70 mV more negative than the external one (which is 0 mV).


Action potential – Short (~ 1 ms) electrical event usually generated in the axon that signals the neuron as “active”. The functional potential moves along the length of the axon and causes the release of the neurotransmitter in the synapse. The potential of the action and the resulting release of the transmitter allows the neurons to communicate with other neurons.


The neurotransmitter – a chemical released from the neuron as a result of the potential. The neurotransmitter travels through the synapse to stimulate or inhibit the target neuron. Distinct types of neurons utilize different neurotransmitters and therefore have different effects on their targets. Synapse neuron – A connection between the axon of one neuron and another dendrite through which two neurons communicate.


Synapse function | understanding The Synapse: Structure and Function

When Neurons communicate with each other at intersections called synapse function. In the synapse, one neuron sends a message to the target neuron – another cell. Most synapses are chemical, these synapses communicate using chemical transmitters.


Other synapses are electric, in these synapses, ions flow directly between the cells. In a chemical synapse, action potential triggers a presynaptic neuron to release neurotransmitters. These molecules bind to the receptors on the postsynaptic cell and make the triggering of the action potential more or less likely.



Introduction synapse function

A single neuron, or a nerve cell, can do a lot! It can maintain the potential of resting voltage on the diaphragm. It can trigger nerve impulses or action potentials. And it can carry out the metabolic processes necessary to stay alive.


However, the neuron signaling is much more exciting – it does not make sense! – when we consider its interaction with other neurons. Individual neurons connect to target neurons and stimulate or inhibit their activity, creating circuits that can process incoming information and perform a reaction.


How do neurons “talk” with each other? The action happens in the synapse, the point of communication between two neurons or between the neuron and the target cell, like the muscle or gland. In the synapse, triggering the action potential in one neuron – presynaptic or sending.



Electrical or chemical transmission synapse function?

At the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century, there were many controversies as to whether the synaptic transmission was electric or chemical. Some thought that synapse signals are related to the flow of ions directly from one neuron to another electrical transmission.


Other people thought it depends on the release of a chemical substance from one neuron, causing a reaction in the receiving neuron-chemical transmission. We now know that synaptic transmission can be either electric or chemical – in some cases both in the same synapse function! Chemical transmission is more common and more complicated than electrical transmission. First, let’s look at the chemical transmission.



Review of transmission in chemical synapse function

The chemical transfer includes the release of chemical messengers called neurotransmitters. The neurotransmitters carry information from the neuron sending pre-synaptically to the postsynaptic receiving cell.


As you can remember from the article about the synapse function of the neuron, synapses are usually created between the nerve endings – the axon tips – on the sending neuron and the cell body or dendrites that receive the neuron.

synapse function



Barrier and inhibitory postsynaptic potentials

When the neurotransmitter binds to the receptor in the recipient cell, it causes the ion channels to open or close. This can cause a localized change in the potential on the membrane of the receiving cell. In some cases, the change causes the target cell to be more inclined to trigger its own action potential.


The membrane potential shift is called excitatory post-synaptic potential or EPSP. In other cases, the change causes the target cell to have less potential to trigger a functional potential and is called post-synaptic inhibitory potential or IPSP.


The EPSP depressivity causes the inside of the cell to be more positive, bringing the potential of the membrane closer to its threshold to trigger the action potential. Sometimes a single EPSP is not big enough to bring the neuron to the threshold. It can add up with other EPSPs to trigger the action potential.


IPSP have the opposite effect. This means that they have a tendency to maintain the potential of the postsynaptic neuron membrane. IPSPs are important because they can counteract or neutralize the exciting effect of EPSP.



Spatial and temporal summation

How do EPSP and IPSP interact?

Essentially, the postsynaptic neuron adds together or integrates all the stimulant and inhibitory inputs. It receives and “decides” whether to trigger the action potential.

The integration of postsynaptic potentials that occur in different places – but more or less at the same time – is called spatial summation. The integration of postsynaptic potentials, which occur in the same place, but at a slightly different time, is called time summation.

Glial Cells and Their Function in the human Brain | Neuroglia OUN cells

Glial cells, sometimes called neuroglia or simply glia, are non-neuronal cells that maintain homeostasis, form myelin and provide support and protection for neurons in the brain and peripheral nervous system.



Neuroglia OUN cells

There are four main functions of glial cells

1. Surround the neurons and keep them in place,  2. Supplying nutrients and 3. oxygen to neurons, 4. To isolate one neuron from another, To destroy pathogens and remove dead neurons,

Types of glial cells

Basically, there are 6 types of glial cells

Macrochic cells, astrocyte, Oligodendroglia, Microglia cells, Schwann Cells, Ependyma Cells, Satellite cells

glial cells


Macrochromic cells include astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and glioblasts; provide nutrition, physical support, and myelin synthesis. There are two main types of Microglia


Astrocytes also are known collectively as astroglia, are characteristic stellate glial cells in the brain and spinal cord. They are the most abundant cells in the human brain.


They perform many functions, including biochemical support of endothelial cells that form the blood-brain barrier, provide nutrients to the nervous tissue, maintain the balance of extracellular ions and a role in the repair and scarring of the brain and spinal cord after traumatic injury.


 The external chemical environment of neurons by removing excess ions, one of which is potassium and the recycling of neurotransmitters released during synaptic transmission.


Current theory suggests that astrocytes may be the dominant “building blocks” of the blood-brain barrier. Astrocytes can regulate vasoconstriction and vasodilation by producing substances such as arachidonic acid whose metabolites are vasoactive.



Astrocytes signal each other with calcium. Slot connections (also called electrical synapses) between astrocytes allow IP3 relay molecules to propagate from one astrocyte to another. IP3 activates calcium channels on cell organelles, releasing calcium into the cytoplasm.


This calcium can stimulate the production of more IP3. The effect of the network is a calcium wave that spreads from the cell. Extracellular release of ATP and the consequent activation of purinergic receptors on other astrocytes may also mediate in some cases calcium waves.


Recently, it has been shown that astrocyte activity is associated with the flow of blood in the brain. Astrocytes can actually communicate with neurons and modify the signals sent and received. This means that astrocytes are much more involved than previously thought in both information processing and signaling in the synapse.


Their main function Oligodendroglia is to provide support and axonal isolation in the central nervous system of some vertebrates, an equivalent function performed by Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system. Oligodendrocytes do this by forming a myelin sheath that is 80% lipid and 20% protein.


A single oligodendrocyte may extend its processes to 50 axons, wrapping around each axon about 1 μm of myelin sheath; On the other hand, Schwann cells can only wrap around 1 axon. Each oligodendrocyte forms one segment of myelin for several neighboring axons.



Ependyma Cells

Ependyma is a thin epithelium-like lining of the ventricular system of the brain and the central spinal cord channel and one of the four types of neuroglia in the central nervous system (CNS). It is involved in the production of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and is intended as a reservoir for neuroregeneration.



Satellite cells

Satellite glial cells are glial cells that cover the surface of nerve bodies in sensory, sympathetic and parasympathetic ganglia. Both glial satellite (SGC) and Schwann cells (cells that contain some nerve fibers) come from the nerve’s nerve crest during development. It was found that SGCs play different roles, including control over the microenvironment of the sympathetic ganglia.

Astrocytes function and interactions of astrocytes with synapses

 Many critical discoveries have underlined the importance of astrocytes in establishing a synaptic connection in the developing brain. In this article, we review the key findings of astrocytes function and elimination of synapses.


First, we summarize our current structural and functional understanding of astrocytes in the synapse. Next, we will discuss the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which developing and mature astrocytes instruct the formation, maturation, and refinement of synapses. Our goal is to provide a review of astrocytes as important players in creating a functional nervous system.




In the central nervous system (CNS), astrocytes are closely related to synapses. Through this linkage, astrocytes can monitor and change synaptic functions, actively controlling synaptic transmission. This close structural and functional partnership of the perisynaptic astrocyte process with pre- and postsynaptic neuronal structures led to the concept of a “triple synapse” (Araque et al. 1999).



astrocytes function

Astrocytes interact closely with the surrounding structures in the nervous system and contribute to the regulation of their function. For example, astrocyte processes contribute to the reduction of glial nerve conduits. It astrocyte contact limbs contact blood vessels and control blood flow. Astrocytes also closely bind to neuronal myomas, axons, dendrites, and synapses.


However, the functional meaning of this phenomenon and the molecular mechanisms controlling this process are largely unknown. Placement of astrocyte plates may be crucial for the proper functioning of the nervous system because in disease states and after injuries, the astrocytes lose their plaques and display a mixed morphology of the process (Oberheim et al. 2009).



(Astrocytes function) Segregate Processes Adjacent Synapses

One of the most important functions of astrocytes in the synapse is the removal of neurotransmitters. For example, astrocyte processes associated with excitatory synapses are coated with glutamate transporters that maintain a low level of surrounding glutamate in the CNS and shape the activation of glutamate receptors in synapses.


astrocytes function processes may have a specific attraction in relation to postsynaptic sites. It turned out that the occurrence of astrocyte processes was three to four times higher compared to presynaptic (Lehre and Rusakov 2002).


Due to the asymmetric location of astrocytes in excitatory synapses, glutamate escaping into the synaptic cleft is 2-4 times more susceptible to the activation of glutamate receptors, which are located on the periphery of the presynaptic side as compared to the non-synaptic receptors in the spines.


This asymmetry is even more exaggerated in the cerebellum, in which Bergman glues the majority of Purkinje cell spines (Grosche et al. 1999). These observations suggest that the interaction of astrocytes with the synapse promotes rapid presynaptic feedback due to overgrowth of glutamate while preserving the specificity of postsynaptic transmission (Rusakov and Lehre 2002).



The interactions of astrocytes with synapses are dynamic

Time-lapse imaging of astrocytes and dendrites in organotypic sections from different brain regions demonstrates the dynamic nature of small astrocytic processes because they rapidly elongate and insert to engage and detach from postsynaptic dendritic spines.


In the brainstem, astrocyte processes interact with neuronal dendrites and spines through at least two distinct microstructures: flat astrocytes similar to lamellipodia and more transient astrocytes similar to filopodia (Grass et al. 2004). Similarly, astrocyte processes actively interact with neuronal dendrites and spines in the mouse hippocampus (Murai et al. 2003, Haber et al. 2006).


interaction of astrocytes

Current molecular knowledge about the interaction of astrocytes with synapses is limited; however, a mechanism mediated by contact involving bi-directional ephrin / EphA signaling has been previously described (Murai et al. 2003). In the hippocampus, astrocytes function and their processes express ephrin A3, whereas neurons express the effa4 receptor.


Transmission of ephrin/ EphA signal by supplying soluble ephrin A3 in hippocampal patch cultures or by transfection of neurons with inactive EphA4 kinase causes defects in spine formation and maturation.


 It is possible that activity-dependent mechanisms regulating ephrin / EphA signaling can modulate the synapse effects of synapses, thus controlling synaptic stability and potentially also eliminating and refining the synapse.


In summary, astrocyte processes closely affect neuronal synapses throughout life, and this interaction is highly dynamic, allowing continuous modulation of synaptic functions by astrocytes.

White matter in brain major symptoms, causes and diagnosis

White matter in brain disease is the consumption of tissue in the largest and deepest parts of the brain due to aging. This tissue contains millions of nerve fibers or axons that connect other parts of the brain and spinal cord and signal the nerves to talk to each other.


A fat material called myelin protects the fibers and gives the white matter its color. This type of brain tissue helps you think fast, go straight and do not fall. When he starts to get sick, myelin breaks down.


Signals that help you do these things cannot get through. Your body stops working as it should, just like the break in the garden hose makes the water that goes out wrong. White matter disease occurs in older people. There are ways to prevent or even reverse this condition, but you must start now.


What causes white matter in the brain?

Many different diseases, injuries, and toxins can cause changes in the white matter. Doctors point to the same problems with blood vessels that lead to heart problems or strokes:


*Long-term high blood pressure *Constant inflammation of blood vessels *Smoking,

It may be worse for women. You may also be more likely to get it if you have,

*Diabetes *High cholesterol *Parkinson’s disease *History of stroke *Genetics can also play a role.



What are the symptoms of white matter in the brain?

The white substance helps to solve the problem and to focus. It also plays an important role in mood, walking, and balance. So if something is wrong with this, you may notice: Problems with learning or remembering new things Difficult problem-solving time Slow thinking Urine leak Depression Walking problems Balance problems and more falls.


White matter in brain disease is different from Alzheimer’s disease, which affects gray brain cells. If you have problems with memory or someone close to you, the doctor will have to carry out tests to make a diagnosis.

white matter in brain
white matter in the brain



How do you recognize him?

Advances in medical imaging have made it easier to detect white matter disease. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which takes pictures of the inside of the brain, can show any damage.


Changes in the white matter will appear on super-bright white (your doctor may call it “hyper-intensive”) on the MRI scan. You may need more tests to rule out other causes.



Potential complications

Potential complications of white matter in brain disease result from symptoms and other medical conditions that can cause. Some potential complications of white matter disease.


balance issues that limit mobility beat vascular dementia cognitive difficulties the bad result after stroke.



Are treatment options available?

White matter in brain disease has no cure, but there are therapies that can help you deal with symptoms. The basic treatment is physical therapy. Physiotherapy can help with problems with balance and walking. General physical and mental health can be improved when you can walk better and move with little or no help.


Based on current research, managing the health of the vascular system can also be an effective way to deal with the symptoms of white matter disease. Do not smoke and take the necessary medications for hypertension as prescribed, it can slow down the progression of the disease and symptoms.


How does diagnose white matter in the brain?

Your doctor may diagnose white matter disease by discussing symptoms and using imaging tests. Many people with the white matter in brain disease approach the doctor complaining about balance problems. After asking a few specific questions about your symptoms, your doctor will probably order an MRI.


MRI is a scan of your brain using magnetic resonance. To look at the white matter of your brain, your physician may use a specific type of MRI called T2 Flair. This type of MRI helps the doctor see the details of the white matter in the brain and also detect any abnormalities in the white matter.


These anomalies appear as spots that are lighter than their surroundings. Both the amount of these abnormal bright spots and the place of abnormality of the white matter will help the doctor to make a diagnosis. The final diagnosis is taken after your doctor considers MRI, your cardiovascular health and any of your symptoms.