Leg pain in kids Majors causes and symptoms -Treatment

Many things can cause leg pain in kids. Too much physical activity or excessive use may cause muscle contraction (or horse Charley). Your child may get leg cramps because he does not consume a balanced diet that has enough potassium, calcium and other minerals. If your child does not drink enough fluids or takes certain medications, he may feel leg cramps.



Major Causes leg pain in kids

 Muscle spasms (cramps) and tense muscles (abuse) are responsible for most lower limb pains.
Short pains (from 1 to 15 minutes) are often caused by muscle cramps (cramps). The muscles of the feet or calves are particularly susceptible to spasms that occur during sports.


Foot or leg cramps can also wake your baby out of sleep. Muscle cramps that occur during hard work or playing sports are called hot cramps. They often react to additional liquids and salt.



Muscle Overuse

Persistent leg pain in kids often comes from hard work or sports. Examples are running or jumping too much. This type of pain can last several hours or up to 7 days. Muscle pain may also result from a forgotten injury that occurred the previous day.



Growing pains

10% of healthy children have harmless leg pain in kids that arises and disappears. They are often called increasing pain (although they have nothing to do with growth). The pain usually increases in the muscles of the calves or thighs. They usually appear on both sides, not on one side. They occur late in the day. Most likely they are caused by running or playing. They usually last between 10 and 30 minutes.



Osgood Schlatter’s disease

Swelling and bone tenderness (tibia) just below the kneecap. The patella tendon attaches to this bone. Caused by an excessive jump or running. The largest age is young teenagers. Harmless and will go away in 1 to 2 years.



Viral infections.

Muscle pains in both legs are common in the case of viral diseases, especially influenza.
Serious reasons. Fractures, deep vein thrombosis (a blood clot in the leg). In addition, neuritis (inflammation of the nerves) and arthritis (arthritis).



Septic arthritis (serious).

Bacterial infection of any joint space is an emergency. Symptoms include severe joint pain, joint stiffness, and high fever. Toxic synovitis of the hip is a harmless condition. It can imitate septic arthritis. Symptoms include flaccidity, moderate pain and usually no fever. Toxic synovitis usually occurs in young children after too high a stroke.


The scale of pain

Mild: Your child is in pain and tells you about it. But the pain does not stop your child from normal activities. School, play and sleep are not changed. Moderate: pain prevents the child from performing normal activities. He can wake him from sleep. Severe: Pain is very bad. It prevents the child from performing all normal activities.



How to find out if your child is getting more and more pain

Laboratory tests and x-ray images will not help the doctor diagnose increasing pain, although imaging can help to rule out other, more serious diseases. “This is a clinical diagnosis that appears after visiting the office and discussing with the child and the parent,”


The severity and frequency of the growing pains are different. They can range from a sense of slight pain intense muscular contraction. But there are typical factors you can expect:

Occur at night or in the evening.
Your child probably feels pain in both legs or hands (although the pain in one arm or leg is possible).
The pain almost always involves the legs. If the pain is in his arms, he usually has pain in his legs.
They are intense enough to wake up your child.

leg pain in kids
leg pain in kids

When to rule out growing pains
There is no “typical” case of growing pains. But there are some symptoms you will not notice in this diagnosis, says Dr. Weinberger. The next condition probably works if:

The pain is permanent and continues to worsen
Your child’s pain persists during the day
The leg pain in kids is clearly around the joints, which is manifested by redness, swelling or stiffness
Pain makes your child is not active.
If you notice any of these symptoms, you should contact your pediatrician so that he can assess your child’s condition.



How can you help the growing pains of your child?

1. Think carefully before giving painkillers.

When your child wakes up in pain, it is tempting to reach for a painkiller in children. Doctors warn, however, that in most cases painkillers will not work fast enough to help with the pain.


However, he notes that ibuprofen and other over-the-counter painkillers can help if your child often has episodes several evenings after himself. In this case, the doctor may recommend giving a painkiller before going to bed after the first episode.


You may notice that your child is more offended or more tired than usual. Sometimes the pain can strike when your child has a particularly active day.

Your doctor may suggest treatment at bedtime when you notice signs of an upcoming episode – especially if your child is experiencing serious growing pains.

Cerebellum function & Disorders

The cerebellum is located behind the upper part of the brain stem (where the spinal cord is in contact with the brain) and consists of two hemispheres (halves). It receives information from sensory systems, the spinal cord and other parts of the brain, and then regulates motor motions.


The cerebellum coordinates voluntary movements such as posture, balance, coordination, and speech, which results in smooth and balanced muscle activity. Read below for cerebellum function



Cerebellum function

The cerebellum is the area behind and at the bottom of the brain, behind the brainstem. The cerebellum function related to movement and coordination, including:

Keeping your balance: the cerebellum has special sensors that detect shifts in balance and movement. Sends signals to the body to adjust and move.

Coordination Movement: Most body movements require the coordination of many muscle groups. The cerebellum measures the time the muscles work so that the body can move smoothly.

Vision: the cerebellum coordinates the movements of the eyeballs.

Motor learning: the cerebellum helps the body learn movements that require training and refinement. For example, the cerebellum plays a role in learning to ride a bicycle or to play a musical instrument.



Other cerebellum function

Researchers believe that the cerebellum function plays a role in thinking, including language and mood. However, discoveries regarding these features have not yet been fully explored.

cerebellum function
cerebellum function

Prior to 1990, the cerebellum function was generally considered to be purely motoric, but newer discoveries undermined this view. Functional imaging studies have shown activation of the cerebellum in relation to language, attention and mental images; correlation studies showed interactions between the cerebellum and non-motor areas of the cerebral cortex; in people with lesions that appear to be limited to the cerebellum, various non-motor symptoms have been identified.


It is a relatively small part of the brain – about ten percent of the total mass but contains about half of the brain’s neurons, specialized cells that transmit information via electrical signals. The cerebellum function is not unique to people. Evolutionarily speaking, this is the older part of the brain. It occurs in animals that scientists think existed before humans. Damage to the cerebellum, although it does not cause paralysis or mental retardation, can lead to imbalance, slow movements, and shocks (shocks). Complex physical tasks would become unstable and would stop.


As a result of a close relationship between the cerebellum and movement, the most common symptoms of cerebellum disorders are disturbances in muscle control.

Symptoms or signs include:

Lack of muscle control and coordination difficulties with walking and mobility indistinct speech or difficulty in speaking. Abnormal eye movements headaches There are many disorders of the cerebellum, including:


 Brain bleeding toxins
genetic abnormalities
tumor ataxia

The main symptom of cerebellum dysfunction is ataxia.

Ataxia is a loss of muscle coordination and control. A basic problem with the cerebellum, such as a virus or brain tumor, can cause these symptoms. Loss of coordination is often the first sign of ataxia, and speech problems soon follow.


 Tumor in the cerebellum

Tumors are abnormal cells that can grow in the brain or migrate from another part of the body. These tumors can be benign and not spread through the body. Malignant neoplasms grow and spread, leading to cancer.

The symptoms of a tumor in the cerebellum include:

vomiting without nausea
difficulties with coordination

Diagnosis and treatment will vary depending on your age, general health, the course of the disease, prospects and other factors.

Pons function & Roles | (Major) function of the pons

Our brain is absolutely unbelievable and ultimately makes human. All parts of the brain are extremely important, but Pons stands out a bit more than some other parts. Check out this guide to learn everything about pons function.

Pons function

Temporal lobe: this lobe is associated with hearing, speech, memory and also has a part of the emotions
Occipital lobe: this lobe is responsible for vision.

The frontal lobe: involved in emotions, reasoning, movement, judgment, and planning.

Parietal lobe: associated with movement, recognition, feeling, language and even temperature.

Thalamus: the hill receives sensory information, which then sends to the cerebral cortex. Think of it as a relay station.

Cerebrum: consists of different parts, responsible for learning, memory, language, sensory processing, smell, and movement.

Hypertal: controls body temperature, hunger, thirst, emotions, and sleep.

Tegmentum: involved in motor movement and control movements.

Tectum: tectum is involved in auditory and visual functions.

Cerebellum: responsible for movement and coordination.

Medulla oblongata: in addition to the responsibility for why alligators are so broken, the core oblongata controls breathing, digestion, sneezing, swallowing and heart activity.

Every single part of the brain is important and as you can see, everyone works together to ensure survival. Pons is another very important part of the brain. Let’s get it.



 Role and pons function

Role 1: the Relay station

The location of Pons makes it an excellent relay station between the extended core and the hill. Pons is located on the highest part of the brainstem, which means it is part of what connects the brainstem to the brain. Because of its location, it is part of what passes messages from the bark to the cerebellum (which is responsible for movement).

Role 2: the Starting point of the nerve

Pons function also serves as a starting point for many different nerves. These nerves are the trigeminal nerve, the subordinate nerve, the facial nerve, and the vestibulocochlear nerve. Let’s analyze what all these nerves are and what they do.


Trigeminal nerve (CN V): This nerve is responsible for the motor function and facial sensation
Motor functions include chewing. It is the largest cranial nerve and branches to three other nerves. Ophthalmic nerve, mandibular nerve, and raw nerve. Nerve Abducens (CN VI): This nerve is responsible for looking outside. It is formed at the crossroads of the core and pons function. Think of it as the nerve is responsible for giving the lateral eye.



The facial nerve (CN VII): one of the most important facial nerves, the nerve responsible for facial expression, taste and language control Controls all muscles involved in the facial expression.
Vestibulocochlear nerve (CN VIII): This is another important nerve because it deals with sound and balance.

pons function
Transmits the sound from the ear
He also deals with the balance from the inner ear
It consists of the cochlear nerve and the vestibular nerve

As you can see, these are very important nerves that control almost everything that has to do with our face.

Role 3: Involuntary pons function

Finally, Pons function controls the involuntary functions of the body. Pons function controls the intensity and frequency of breathing and also controls our cycle of sleep and consciousness.


Many researchers believe that Pons function plays an important role in REM sleep in which dreams occur. By studying and conducting experiments, scientists believe that dreams actually come from Pons, so the next time you have an angry or strange dream, you blame your Pons for action.


Can we live without Pons?

While people can live without the gall bladder, lungs and even kidneys, there are certain organs and parts of our body without which we can not live. Pons is one of those parts without which we can not live. If you removed anything above the brainstem, your body could theoretically survive, but if anything below the brainstem has disappeared, you would not be able to survive.


The brainstem is what “holds” all our basic functions, such as breathing, for which Pons is responsible. It transmits messages in the brain and controls too many important vital functions that we need as people. If these injuries had something to do with the brainstem, they would die rather quickly, since this stem is so important.

Midbrain function & Structures | Major function midbrain

The midbrain is a part of the brainstem connecting the upper brain and forebrains. Many nerves run through the midbrains that connect the brain to the cerebellum and other posterior brain structures.


The midbrain function is to support the movement, as well as visual and auditory processing. Damage to some areas of the midbrain is associated with the development of Parkinson’s disease.

Midbrain function

The midbrain function includes:

Controlling the view response,
Eye movement,
Pupil dilation,
Regulate muscle movement,



midbrain function is the most rostral part of the brainstem. It is located between the forebrain and hindbrain.



Many structures are located in the midbrain including the tegmentum, cerebral stalk, black matter, crus cerebri and cranial nerves (holomorphic and pale-faced). Tectum consists of rounded convexities called colliculi, which are involved in visual and hearing processes.



The cerebral skeleton is a bundle of nerve fibers that connect the forebrains and hindbrain. The cerebral skeleton contains tegmentum (forms the basis of the midbrain) and crus cerebri (nerve lines that connect the brain with the cerebellum).


The substantia nigra has neural connections to the frontal lobes. Its areas of the brain involved in the midbrain function. Cells in the substantia nigra also produce dopamine, a chemical messenger that helps to coordinate muscle movements.


midbrain function


Neurodegeneration of nerve cells in the substantia nigra reduces dopamine production because Significant loss of dopamine levels (60-80%) can cause the development of Parkinson’s disease. Parkinson’s disease is a disorder of the nervous system that causes loss of control and motor coordination. Symptoms include tremors, slowness of movement, muscle stiffness, and balance problems.



Interstitial structures

The midbrains form three main structures: the cerebral stalk (pedicel denoting the “foot” or “base” of the brain), the corpora Quadri Gemina (which means “all fours” because it has four mounds or hill-like structures), and the cerebral aqueduct, which is the dividing canal both structures.


Now that we know the structures, let us take a moment to look at them individually so that we can better understand their unique roles.

Cerebral Szypułka

The main function of the cerebral stalk is the transmission of motor signals from the brain to the brainstem because It consists of a thick bundle of nerve fibers, called corticospinal tracts, that carry motor signals from the brain to the muscles.


Do not be fooled; the cerebral stalk is not just a “truck driver”, carrying its “load” of motor signals from one place to another; it also communicates with the cerebellum and thus helps to fine tune motor motions.



It is important to remember that the cerebellum, not being part of the midbrain, communicates with the cerebral stalks through something called the red nucleus.


Proprioception is a sense of your own body in the environment, which means that even with blindfolded eyes, you can feel things like your hands, and feet that are against each other or when you’re upside down or on the right.


This is a pretty cool feature and in its absence. We would be really helpless and completely devoid of grace in our environment. If the motor signals come straight from our brains, without going through the “cleansing” mid-brains, one would say goodbye to dance competitions, because we would all be really horrible!


Brainstem function Location & structures| Main function

The brain stem is the area of the brain that connects the brain to the spinal cord. It consists of the midbrain, medulla, and bridge. Motor and sensory neurons travel through the brainstem to allow signals to be transmitted between the brain and the spinal cord. Most cranial nerves are in the brainstem. Read below for brainstem function.



The brainstem coordinates engine control signals sent from the brain to the body. This region of the brain also controls the life supporting the autonomic functions of the peripheral nervous system.


The fourth cerebral ventricle is located in the brainstem, posterior to the bridge and the medulla. This chamber filled with cerebrospinal fluid is continuous with the brain aqueduct and the central channel of the spinal cord.


brainstem function

The brainstem function controls several important functions of the body, including:

Control of blood pressure,


Other autonomic brainstem function

Information on relays between peripheral nerves and the spinal cord and upper parts of the brain. In addition to connecting the brain and the spinal cord, the brainstem also connects the brain with the cerebellum. The cerebellum is important for the regulation of functions such as the coordination of movements, balance, balance and muscle tension.


It is located above the brainstem and under the occipital lobes of the cerebral cortex. Nerve patterns that travel through the brainstem relay signals from the cerebellum to the areas of the cerebral cortex that are involved in motor control. This allows the coordination of minor motor motions needed during activities such as walking or playing video games.

brainstem function
brainstem function

The direction of the brain stem is at the junction of the brain and spine. It is earlier than the cerebellum.


Brain structures

The brain stem consists of the midbrain and part of the back of the brain, in particular of the sternum and the cord. The main function of the midbrain is to connect the three main areas of the brain: forebrain, midbrain, and hindbrain.


The main midbrain structures include the tectum and cerebral stalk. Tectum consists of rounded convexities of the brain matter that are involved in visual and auditory reflexes. The peduncle consists of large bundles of nerve fibers that connect the forebrain to the posterior brain.


The sacral muscle consists of two sub-regions called pulp and grinder because Metencalon consists of bridges and cerebellum. Pons helps in regulating breathing, as well as sleep and arousal states. The cerebellum transmits information between the muscles and the brain.


Mieleniec consists of the core oblongata and the function of connecting the spinal cord with the higher areas of the brain. Medulla also helps regulate autonomic functions, such as breathing and blood pressure.



Brain injury

Damage to the brain stem caused by injury or stroke can lead to difficulties with mobility and motor coordination. Activities such as walking, writing, and eating become difficult and a person may need lifelong treatment.   A stroke can cause breathing problems, heart rate, hearing, and speech. It can also cause hand and leg contusion as well as numbness in the body or on one side of the body.

Myelin sheath function & (Major) Causes,Symptoms

The myelin sheath function is to protect and isolate the axons and improve their transmission of electrical impulses. If myelin is damaged, the transmission of these impulses is slowed down, which is observed in severe neurological conditions, such as multiple sclerosis. Read on more about myelin sheath function.


myelin sheath function

Neurons can be myelinated – they are surrounded by myelin or non-myelinated casings because they are not surrounded by the myelin sheath.


Myelin sheath function consists of Schwann cells and there are vaginal gaps known as Ranvier nodes.


The main myelin sheath function is:

It acts as an electrical insulator for the neuron – it prevents the penetration of electrical impulses through the shield.


In myelin sheath function, The sheath prevents ion migration to or from the neuron / prevents depolarization.

Accelerates the transmission of the electrical impulse in the neuron – impulses cannot pass through the shield (the shield acts as an electrical insulator), instead, the pulses “jump” from the gap in the myelin sheath to another gap (it jumps from one Ranvier node to another).




myelin sheath causes

Damaged nerve signals can cause debilitating symptoms, including:

problems with walking and coordination, weak muscles, fatigue, Sight problems

MS affects everyone differently. The seriousness of the illness and the types of symptoms vary from person to person. The exact cause of MS is unknown. However, scientists accept that four factors may play a role in the development of the disease.


Cause 1: The immune system

Multiple sclerosis is considered to be an immune-mediated disease: the immune system is malfunctioning and attacks the CNS. 


Research is underway on which immune cells are responsible for the attack. Researchers are trying to discover what causes these cells to attack. They also look for methods to control or stop the progression of the disease.



Cause 2: Genetics

Some genes are thought to play a role in MS. Your chance for developing MS is slightly higher if a close relative, such as a parent or sibling, gets ill.

Researchers believe that people with multiple sclerosis are born with a genetic susceptibility to respond to certain (unknown) environmental factors.



Cause 3: Environment

Epidemiologists have observed an increased pattern of MS cases in countries farthest from the equator. This connection causes some to believe that vitamin D may play a role.

Vitamin D is beneficial for the immune system. People living near the equator are exposed to more sunlight. As an outcome, their bodies produce more vitamin D.



Cause 4: Infection

Researchers are considering the possibility that viruses and bacteria can cause multiple sclerosis. Viruses cause myelin inflammation and breakdown (so-called demyelination). Therefore, it is possible that the virus can trigger MS. Several viruses and bacteria are tested to determine if they are involved in the development of MS. They include:

measles virus
human herpes-6 virus (HHV-6)
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)



The symptoms of MS

There are many triggers that people with MS should avoid.


Stress can cause and worsen MS symptoms. Practices that help reduce stress and manage stress can be helpful for people with multiple sclerosis. Add to relaxing rituals such as yoga and meditation.


Cigarette smoke can contribute to the progress of MS. If you are a smoker, look at the effective methods of quitting smoking. Avoid using passive smoking.


Not everyone can see the difference in symptoms because of heat, but avoid direct sun or hot tubs if you notice that you are responding to them.



There are several ways that medications can make symptoms worse. If you are taking many medications and are having a bad effect, talk to your doctor about which medications are necessary and which you can stop.

Some people stop taking medication for MS because they have too many side effects or think they are not effective. However, these drugs are necessary to prevent relapse and new changes, so it is important to stay with them.



No sleep

Fatigue is a common symptom of MS. If you do not fall asleep enough, it can reduce your energy even more.

From urinary tract infections to colds or flu, infections can make your symptoms worse. In fact, infections cause about one-third of all exacerbations of MS symptoms, according to the Cleveland Clinic.



MS treatment

Although there is no cure for MS, there are treatment options that help to cope with MS symptoms.

The most commonly used categories of treatment are corticosteroids, such as oral prednisone and intravenous methylprednisolone, which reduce nerve inflammation.



In cases that do not respond to steroids, some doctors recommend exchanging plasma.

 In the case of relapsing-remitting MS, several disease-modifying therapies are available, but all of them involve significant health risks. Talk to your doctor about whether they are appropriate for you.

AVM brain | Major Symptoms of AVM brain | What is an AVM

The brain arteriovenous malformation (AVM brain) is a tangle of abnormal blood vessels that connect the arteries and veins in the brain. Arteries are responsible for getting oxygen-rich blood from the heart to the brain. The veins carry oxygen-free blood back to the lungs and heart. The AVM brain disturbs this important process.



The arteriovenous malformation may develop anywhere in the body, but most often occurs in the brain or spine. However, AVM brain devices are rare and affect less than 1 percent of the population. The cause of AVM brain is not clear. Most people are born with them, but sometimes they can be created later in life. They are rarely transmitted genetically between families.



Some people with arteriovenous malformation brain experience signs and symptoms, such as headaches or convulsions. AVM brain is commonly found after scanning the brain for a different health problem or after rupture of the blood vessels and bleeding in the brain (hemorrhage). After the diagnosis of AVM, the brain can often be effectively treated to prevent complications such as brain damage or stroke.



Symptoms of AVM brain

Arterial-venous damage to the brain can not cause any signs or symptoms until the AVM ruptures, causing bleeding in the brain (hemorrhage). In about half of all cerebral AVM, hemorrhage is the first symptom. But some people with AVM brain may feel signs and symptoms other than the bleeding associated with AVM.



In people without hemorrhage, AVM symptoms may include:

Epileptic seizures, A headache or pain in one area of the head, Weakness or numbness in one part of the body,

Some people may experience more serious neurological symptoms and symptoms, depending on the location of AVM, including:


A severe headache, Weakness, numbness or paralysis, Loss of sight, Difficulties in speaking, Confusion or inability to understand others,
Severe instability


Symptoms can occur at any age, but usually, occur between the ages of 10 and 40. Cerebral AVM may eventually damage the brain tissue. The effects slowly grow and often cause symptoms in early adulthood.


However, after reaching middle age, the AVMs have a tendency to remain stable and less likely to cause symptoms. Some pregnant women may worsen symptoms due to changes in blood volume and blood pressure.



One major type of AVM brain, called the vein of Galen, results in symptoms that appear soon or immediately after birth. The main blood vessel involved in this type of AVM brain can cause fluid accumulation in the brain and swelling of the head. Symptoms include swelling of blood vessels visible on the scalp, convulsions, inability to develop, and congestive heart failure.



When to go to the doctor

If you notice any symptoms of AVM, such as seizures, headaches or other symptoms, seek medical attention immediately. Brain bleeding AVM is life-threatening and requires immediate medical attention.


Bleeding in the brain (hemorrhage). AVM exerts extreme pressure on the walls of affected arteries and veins, causing them to lose weight or weaken. This may cause AVM to rupture and bleed into the brain (hemorrhage).



The risk of bleeding from the AVM brain is around 2 percent per year. The risk of bleeding may be higher for some types of AVM or if previous AVMs have been broken.


Some AVM-associated hemorrhages remain undetected because they do not cause severe brain damage or symptoms, but potentially life-threatening bleeding episodes can occur.


Brain AVMs account for about 2 percent of all hemorrhagic strokes each year and are often the cause of hemorrhage in children and young adults with cerebral hemorrhage.


Reduced oxygen

Reduced oxygen in brain tissue. Thanks to AVM, blood bypasses the capillary network and flows directly from the arteries to the veins. The blood flows quickly through the changed path because it is not slowed down by the channels of the smaller blood vessels.


The surrounding brain tissue cannot easily absorb oxygen from the fast-flowing blood. Without enough oxygen, the brain tissues weaken or can completely go out. This causes stroke-like symptoms such as difficulty in speaking, weakness, numbness, loss of vision or severe instability.


Thin or weak blood vessels. AVM exerts extreme pressure on the thin and weak walls of the blood vessels. A bulge in the wall of the blood vessel (an aneurysm) may develop and become susceptible to rupture.
Brain damage. As you grow up, your body can recruit more arteries to supply blood to the fast-flowing AVM.


As a result, some AVMs can grow and move or compress parts of the brain. This may prevent the free flow of protective fluids around the cerebral hemispheres. If the fluid rises, it can direct the brain tissue up towards the skull (hydrocephalus).

Arteriovenous malformation brain (Major) Causes & Risk,Diagnosed

Your cardiovascular system consists of the heart and blood vessels. There are three kinds of blood vessels in the circulatory system: veins, capillaries, and arteries. Arteriovenous malformation defects (AVM) are defects in the blood vessels of the circulatory system. Read below for arteriovenous malformation brain


A developmental defect is an abnormal combination of veins and arteries. It interferes with the ability of your body to circulate blood. It is usually congenital, which means that the condition is present after birth. Although malformations may start anywhere in your body, some development in the brain and spinal cord region, causing seizures and headaches



Causes of arteriovenous malformation brain

Some doctors believe that they appear in the uterus or shortly after birth and appear later when the child is getting old. Children born with AVM may have a bluish tinge on their skin. This is due to the lack of oxygenated blood circulating in the body. The skin tends to darken to deep red or purple when children age and the condition worsens.



The risk for arteriovenous malformation brain

There are some genetic syndromes that may increase the risk of AVM, such as hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia or Osler-Weber-Rendu syndrome. There are rare reports of AVM in several family members, although it is not clear whether it is genetic or accidental.




Symptoms of arteriovenous malformation brain

Symptoms of AVM vary depending on:

AVM location, AVM size

The size of the blood vessels involved in AVM
You can not have significant symptoms if you have AVM in the brain. In some cases, cerebral AVMs cause headaches or convulsions. Unfortunately, due to the lack of symptoms, this type of AVM often goes undiagnosed or unnoticed until it becomes manifest in life-threatening symptoms.




Common brain AVM symptoms include:

cranial bleeding, most often subarachnoid hemorrhage convulsions
headaches focal neurological deficits, such as weakness, numbness or tingling on one part or side of the body confusion.  If AVM is elsewhere in the body, the symptoms may be more pronounced. Common AVM symptoms in the extremities and spinal cord include:


weak muscles, inability to move the limb, lack coordination,

Common symptoms of AVM in the organs, chest or abdomen are:

abdominal pain, back pain, pain in the chest,
irregular sounds in the affected blood vessels


Some of the symptoms in children under the age of 2 includes:

congestive heart failure in which the heart is unable to pump out the blood that got to her, convulsions, hydrocephalus, an expand in fluid in the brain that causes swelling.



arteriovenous malformation brain diagnosed

Your doctor will conduct a physical examination and several tests confirming AVM. It is important to exclude other health problems that may mimic the symptoms of AVM. The imaging tools used to diagnose AVM include:



TK: creates detailed images of the interior of the body
MRI: produces images of the brain and its blood vessels (if you have AVM in the brain, it is especially useful to determine exactly where AVM is found and which brain structures it affects)

angiography: visualizes the blood vessels around the head and neck by injecting the dye through the catheter (which is usually inserted through the blood vessel in the groin)
Magnetic Resonance Angiogram (MRA): creates images of blood vessels.




How is arteriovenous malformation brain treated?

Your treatment plan will depend on your age, condition and physical health. The most important goal is to prevent internal bleeding that can lead to stroke or death.


Your doctor may prescribe medication, even if it does not cure AVM. Drugs control pain and convulsions.


An operation to repair or remove damaged blood vessels is an option. The type of operation you will need depends on the type of AVM. There are three options: conventional surgery, endovascular embolization, radiosurgery



Endovascular embolization is used for arteriovenous malformations in the brain or spinal cord tissue. In this procedure, a thin, flexible tube called a catheter is guided to the AVM to close the abnormal connection. It does not fix AVM, but it reduces the blood flow to it and makes the operation safer.



Radiosurgery requires the use of a highly concentrated beam of radiation and focusing it directly on the site of AVM. Radiation damages the walls of blood vessels and creates scars that will ultimately stop blood flow to AVM.

Wallenberg syndrome (Major) Symptoms of Wallenberg syndrome

The Wallenberg syndrome is a rare condition in which the infarction or stroke occurs in the lateral cortex. The lateral core is part of the brainstem. Oxidized blood does not reach the part of the brain when the arteries that lead to it are blocked. Due to this blockage, a stroke may occur. This condition is also sometimes called a lateral-medial infarction.



Symptoms of Wallenberg syndrome

The brain stem is responsible for providing information to the spinal cord for motor and sensory functions. Stroke in this area causes problems with the perception of muscles and functions.


The most common symptoms of people with Wallenberg syndrome are dysphagia or difficulty swallowing. This can become very serious if it affects how much you are getting nutrition. Other symptoms are:


hoarseness, nausea,  vomiting,  hiccup,  quick eye movements or nystagmus, reducing sweating,  problems with feeling body temperature,  dizziness, difficulty walking,  difficulty in maintaining balance,


Sometimes people with Wallenberg syndrome experience paralysis or numbness on one side of the body. This can occur in the limbs, on the face and even in a small area such as language.


You can also feel the difference in how hot or cold something is on one side of the body. Some people walk on a slope or report that everything around them seems to be tilted or balanced.



This syndrome can also cause bradycardia or slow heart rate and low or high blood pressure. Discuss any symptoms you have with your doctor. Any information can help to make a diagnosis.




The risk for Wallenberg syndrome

Researchers still need to understand why this type of stroke occurs. However, some researchers have found a relationship between those who suffer from the arterial disease, heart disease, blood clots or minor neck injuries due to rotational activities and Wallenberg Syndrome.


Small neck injury is a common cause among people under 45. Please inform your doctor if you have experienced any of these problems.




 The Wallenberg Syndrome diagnosed

The doctor usually makes a diagnosis after thoroughly reviewing the person’s health history and listening to her description of symptoms. You may need a CT or MRI scan if the doctor suspects you have a Wallenberg syndrome. They can order these imaging tests to confirm whether there is a block in the artery near the spinal cord.



The Wallenberg team treated

No medicine is available for this condition, but your doctor will probably focus on treatment on relieving or removing your symptoms. They can prescribe speech and swallow therapy to help you learn to swallow again.


They may also recommend a feeding tube if your condition is severe. It will help you to provide the necessary nutrients. Your doctor may prescribe medication.


Analgesics can help treat chronic or long-term pain. Alternatively, they may prescribe a blood thinner, such as heparin or warfarin, to reduce or dissolve a blockage in the artery. It can also help prevent the formation of blood clots in the future.


Sometimes an antiepileptic or anti-epileptic drug called gabapentin may help relieve symptoms. The operation may be an option to remove the clot in extreme cases. This is not so common in treatment because of difficulty in getting into this area of the brain. Discuss your treatment options with your doctor and act exactly as planned.



The long-term prospects for people with Wallenberg syndrome

Long-term prospects for people with Wallenberg syndrome are quite positive. Successful cure depends on the place of impact in the brainstem. It also depends on how much damage has occurred. Some people can recover from a few weeks to six months after treatment.


Others with more significant lesions may have problems with a permanent disability or more. If you have any questions, please discuss with your doctor a long-term perspective. Remember to follow the treatment plan carefully to ensure the best chance of full recovery.

schizophrenia symptoms in females(Life challenges)

There is no difference in the incidence and prevalence of schizophrenia between men and women, although schizophrenia is more strongly associated with younger men. This may be due to the fact that women more often than men experience the beginning of schizophrenia.


Schizophrenia symptoms in females, while the onset of males usually occurs in the early 20s. Also, because women with schizophrenia are more socially active, their schizophrenia may be less detectable. Read on more about Schizophrenia symptoms in females.




Schizophrenia symptoms in females

The criteria for diagnosing schizophrenia symptoms in females are the same in men, but the characteristics of schizophrenia vary between the sexes. For example, women may show depression or anxiety, which may increase the risk of suicide.

Women with schizophrenia rarely have symptoms such as:


Flat affect (monotonous voice, blunt expression)
Blunt emotional reactions (not responding strongly emotionally to good or bad news)



Speech reduction,Social withdrawal

Women with schizophrenia may be more physically active and more hostile than men. They may also experience more auditory hallucinations as well as paranoid and persecuting illusions. Paranoid delusions consist of thoughts like “my husband cheats me” when he is not.




Life challenges for women with schizophrenia

Usually, women with schizophrenia function better than men, often because the late age of the disease is a less serious form of mental illness. Women with schizophrenia more often experience less hospitalization and shorter hospital visits than men.


Some researchers believe that the later effect is that hormones such as estrogens have a protective effect. However, this difference in the starting age does not occur in all ethnic groups. For example, many studies in India did not show a difference in the average age of men and women.



Women with schizophrenia are more likely to have married and have children. It is more likely that they will have unplanned pregnancies than women without this disease. In developed countries, women with schizophrenia experience greater homelessness. However, they are less susceptible than men to disorders related to substance use or smoking.


Older women experience severe late dyskinesia (TD), an involuntary movement disorder usually seen in the jaw, lips and tongue caused by antipsychotic drugs, more often than older men. In the end, being a woman and suffering from schizophrenia is also more related to the incidence of migraine and thyroid problems.

schizophrenia symptoms in females
schizophrenia symptoms in females



Treatment of women with schizophrenia

Although the treatment of mental illness is not usually distributed on the basis of sex, doctors best serve women, taking into account their unique experience of schizophrenia and the unique challenges they face.


Because women have a later onset of the disease and rarely feel affective symptoms, clinicians need to be careful to exclude other mental disorders such as the schizoaffective disorder or bipolar disorder when diagnosing schizophrenia.



Treatment of women with schizophrenia should include psychoeducation and support for the needs of mothers with children. Antipsychotic drugs can affect breastfeeding and the amount of energy that a mother needs to give birth to her babies. 7 Women-friendly treatment programs should also include education about physical health.


Women with schizophrenia rarely care for their physical health. This leaves the risk of untreated breast cancer, osteoporosis, and thyroid disease. Mental health specialists should also consider creating safety plans for women with schizophrenia who are at increased risk of committing suicide.



Every person suffering from a mental illness is a natural person and experiences challenges related to mental illness as a natural person. Women with schizophrenia are no exception.