Myocardium function and Stunning myocardial

The myocardium is the thick, middle layer of the heart and is composed of cardiac muscle. Cardiac muscle is very unique because it possesses the characteristics of skeletal muscle and smooth muscle. Skeletal muscle controls. The muscles of the body. The myocardium acts on its own, with no conscious effort.

Myocardium consists of thousands of muscle fibers, which are striated (they have many striped fibers) and are distributed at irregular intervals throughout the muscle. They connect with each other in points called intercalated disks. They are small membranes that separate the ends of muscle cells. These fibers actually use calcium to cause electrical conduction.

The cardiac muscle is the muscular middle layer of the heart wall. It consists of spontaneously contracting myocardial fibers that allow the heart to contract. Heart contraction is an autonomic (involuntary) function of the peripheral nervous system. The cardiac muscle surrounds the epicardium (the outer layer of the heart wall) and the intradermal (inner layer of the heart).



Myocardium function

Myocardium stimulates heart contractions to pump blood from the chambers of the heart and relaxes the heart to allow the atria to take blood. These cramps generate the so-called Heartbeat. The heartbeat drives the cycle of the heart that pumps blood to the cells and tissues of the body.


Stunning myocardial is a reversible reduction in the function of cardiac contraction after reperfusion, which is not due to tissue damage or reduced blood flow. When complete myocardial ischemia occurs, it immediately switches from aerobic glycolysis to anaerobic glycolysis, resulting in a reduced ability to produce high-energy phosphates such as ATP and creatinine phosphate. At this point, lack of energy and the accumulation of lactate stops the contraction within 60 seconds of ischemia (ie occlusion of the vessel). The next stage is “stun heart muscle” in which there is a reversible ischemic injury. About 30 minutes after complete ischemia, the lesion becomes irreversible, ending the phase of myocardial stunning.

The clinical situations of stunned heart muscle are:

acute myocardial infarction (AMI)
after percutaneous coronary angioplasty (PTCA)
after cardiac surgery
“neurogenic” stun of the myocardium after acute cerebrovascular accident, such as subarachnoid haemorrhage



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Eye functions and Sight problems

The eyes are the organs of the visual system. They provide visions to the bodies, the ability to receive and process visual details, and also enable several photo response functions that are independent of the vision. The eyes detect light and transform it into electrochemical impulses in neurons.


In elevated organisms, the eye is a complicated optical system that collects light from the surrounding environment, regulates its intensity through the diaphragm, focuses it through an adjustable set of lenses to create an image, converts this image into a set of electrical signals, and transmits these signals to the brain through complex pathways nerves that connect the eye through the optical nerve to the eye cortex and other areas of the brain. Eyes with resolved force have ten essentially different forms, and 96% of animal species have a complex optical system. Eyes that dissolve the image are present in mollusks, stringers, and arthropods. Read below Eye functions


Eye functions


For people with normal functioning eyes the following sequence takes place:

Light reflects from the object we look at.
Rays of light penetrate the eye through the cornea at the front of the eye.
The light passes through the aqueous fluid (water humor) and enters the pupil to reach the lens.
The lens can change the thickness to bend the light that focuses it on the retina at the back of the eye.
On the way to the retina, the light passes through a dense, transparent liquid called glassy humor. The vitreous body fills the eyeball and helps to keep it around.
The light reaches the back of the eye and hits the retina. The retina transforms the light into electrical impulses, which transmits to the brain with the optic nerve.
Finally, the visual cortex interprets these impulses as what we see.



What is the normal vision


To understand the vision of a person with a visual impairment, it may be helpful to know the correct vision. Imagine a scenario in which two people are sitting on the couch in front of you. If you look directly at Person A, you will be able to use your spot or central vision to see the details of their head and face. Maybe they have freckles, brown eyes, and black hair.


At the same time, you realize that Person B is sitting on the couch next to Person A. However, you can not see the same amount of detail on your face. For example, you can only see the dark areas in which their eyes are. To see Person B, you use the rest of your retina or peripheral vision. Seeing clearly and sharply in the center, and blurred at the periphery is considered the normal vision.



Sight problems


A problem with any part of the eye can cause eye problems. There are many types of eye diseases that can affect the eye functions in different ways. In some cases, the lens does not focus properly, or the shape of the eyeball is not round, so the picture appears indistinct. Often this can be improved by using corrective glasses or contact lenses. When the image is focused behind the retina, this is called hyperopia. When the image focus against the retina, this refers to myopia (myopia).


Some eye conditions affect the retina. For some people, this only applies to their peripheral vision, which may cause vision in the tunnel. In the case of other people, this only affects their vision of the macula, which can lead to the formation of dead spots. Finally, other eye conditions that can cause vision problems to eye functions include clouding of the lens (cataract), increased pressure in the eye (glaucoma), corneal damage or problems with the eye muscles.

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thyroid hormones functions and hypothyroidism

The thyroid gland is located in front of the windpipe (windpipe) in your neck. The gland is divided into 2 lobes (right and left) and is connected in the middle with a thin thyroid gland bridge called the isthmus. Due to the two connected lobes, the thyroid was described as having the shape of a butterfly or bow tie. The thyroid cartilage, which is the largest laryngeal cartilage (the voice box), lies just above the thyroid gland and is sometimes known as Adam’s apple. Normal thyroid size cannot be seen in the neck and you can barely feel it. Only when certain conditions lead to the enlargement of the thyroid (known as the will), can you notice or feel the bulge just under Adam’s apple?


Thyroid hormones functions


The thyroid is part of the body’s endocrine system. The organs of the endocrine system secrete hormones. The primary function of the thyroid gland is the secretion of thyroid hormones. Thyroid hormones take part in the regulation of many body functions, such as breathing, heart rate, temperature, calorie burning, and digestion, as well as many other functions. Infants and children need adequate amounts of thyroid hormones for brain development and development.


Your thyroid needs iodine (a chemical element that is an essential part of our diet) to produce these thyroid hormones. Foods that are naturally rich in iodine include seafood and plants grown on iodine-rich soil. Iodised salt is another good source of iodine diet. The two primary thyroid hormones are T3 (triiodothyronine) and T4 (thyroxine). T3 and T4 regulate body temperature, metabolism, and heart rate.


The number of secreted thyroid hormone is controlled by an additional hormone, called thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), which is released from the pituitary gland in the brain. TSH stimulates the thyroid to build T3 and T4. Blood tests are performed on the level of TSH when doctors are examining thyroid disease. T3 and T4 tests can also be tested. Please note that different laboratories may have different reference ranges for normal, so always follow the doctor’s instructions.


T3 or triiodothyronine

T3 tests can help diagnose hyperthyroidism (hyperthyroidism). Usually accepted normal range for free T3 (which measures T3 in the bloodstream, but not T3 bound to the protein in your body) is between 3.1 pmol / L and 6.8 pmol / L.

T4 (thyroxine)
The normal range usually cited for free thyroxine (T4) is 12-22 pmol / L. In people with hyperthyroidism (hyperthyroidism), free T4 usually exceeds 22 pmol / L. And for those with hypothyroidism (hypothyroidism), free T4 is usually below 12 pmol / L.


Symptoms of hyperthyroidism


Hyperthyroidism in which hyperthyroidism can lead to such symptoms as weight loss, rapid pulse, being too hot, nervousness or nervousness and irregular menstruation.

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Sense organs functions and their five sense

The five senses are the five main tools used by people to perceive the world. These senses are vision, smell, hearing, taste, and touch. We see with our own eyes, we smell our nose, listen with our ears, taste the language and touch the skin. Our brain receives signals from each organ and interprets them to give us a sense of what is happening around us. Read below sense organs functions.


sense organs functions


 The eyes allow us to see. But if you break them, they do more than just that. Using our eyes, we can assess the depth, interpret new information and identify colors (wavelengths reflecting off the surface).


Noses use to smell odors. They give you a sense of what particles are moving in the air, which can help us determine if there are dangerous chemicals in the vicinity. The fragrance also has the strongest connection to the memory; a familiar smell can remind us of things long forgotten.


The ears let us hear the sound – detect the vibrations in the air particles surrounding us. But the internal ear also helps us preserve balance and regulate sinus pressure. This is especially useful when changing altitude (for example when flying in an airplane).


Languages are used to taste the food, allowing us to find out if something will be useful to our body or poisonous. They also allow us to feel the heat and cold in food and drink.


The last of all is skin, which is responsible for what can be the most important sense in the human body. The skin meets a huge number of functions. They include:

Sweating (sweating) to cool the body
Protection from the elements


Other internal sense organs functions


The inner sense also known as interception is “any sense normally stimulated from within the body”. They include numerous sensory receptors in internal organs, such as stretch receptors that neurologically associate with the brain. Interoception is thought to be atypical in clinical settings such as alexithymia.  Some examples of specific receptors are:


Hunger is an impression that regulates with a set of brain structures (such as the Hippola) responsible for energy homeostasis.
Pulmonary tensile receptors are located in the lungs and control the respiratory rate.

Peripheral brain chemoreceptors monitor levels of carbon dioxide and oxygen in the brain to induce strangulation when levels of carbon dioxide are too high. 

The resting area of the chemoreceptor is the area of the brain’s core that receives input from blood-derived medicines or hormones and communicates with the center of vomiting.

Chemoreceptors in the circulatory system also measure salt levels and speed up thirst if they are too high; they can also respond to high blood sugar in patients with diabetes.

Skin receptors in the skin not only react to touch, pressure, temperature, and vibration, but also react to the expansion of blood vessels in the skin, such as blushing.

Stretch receptors

Stretch receptors in the gas stretching of the gastrointestinal tract, which can cause colic pain.
Stimulation of the sensory receptors in the esophagus results in sensations experienced in the throat during swallowing, vomiting or during gastric reflux.

Sensory receptors in the mucous membrane of the throat, similar to the tactile receptors in the skin, sense foreign objects, such as food, which can cause the gag reflex and the corresponding sense of leaven.

Stimulation of the sensory receptors in the bladder and rectum can cause a feeling of fullness.
Stimulation of traction sensors that sense the dilation of various blood vessels can cause pain, for example, a headache caused by vasodilation in the arteries of the brain. Cardioversion refers to the perception of heart activity. Opsin and direct DNA damage in melanocytes and keratinocytes can detect ultraviolet radiation, which plays a role in pigmentation and sunburn.

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Endocrine system functions & Pituitary gland

The endocrine system functions consist of hormone-producing and secreting glands. The chemicals produced in the body that regulate the activity of cells or organs. These hormones regulate body growth, metabolism (physical and chemical processes of the body) and sexual development and function. Hormones released into the bloodstream and can affect one or several organs throughout the body. Hormones chemical messengers create with the body. They transmit information from one set of cells to another to coordinate the functions of different parts of the body.

The main glands of the endocrine system are hypothalamus. The pituitary gland, thyroid gland, parathyroid glands, adrenal glands, pineal gland and reproductive organs (ovaries and testes). The pancreas is also part of this system; plays a role in the production of hormones, as well as indigestion.


Endocrine system functions

The endocrine system regulates from feedback in the same way a thermostat regulates the room temperature. In the case of hormones that regulate from the pituitary gland, the signal sends from the hypothalamus to the pituitary gland in the form of a “releasing hormone” that stimulates the pituitary gland to secrete the “stimulating hormone” into the circulation. The stimulating hormone then signals the target hormone secretion hormone. When the level of this hormone increases in the circulation, the hypothalamus and pituitary gland release hormone releasing and stimulating hormone, which in turn slows down secretion by the target gland. This system causes a stable concentration of hormones regulated by the pituitary gland.



The hypothalamus

The hypothalamus is pinpoint in the lower, central part of the brain. This part of the brain is important in regulating satiety, metabolism and body temperature. In addition, it secretes hormones that stimulate or inhibit the release of hormones in the pituitary gland. Many of these hormones release hormones that secrete into the artery (the pituitary system) that transports them directly to the pituitary gland. In the pituitary, these releasing hormones are responsible for secretion of stimulating hormones. The hypothalamus also hidden a hormone called somatostatin, which causes the pituitary gland to terminate the release of growth hormone.



The pituitary gland

The pituitary gland is located at the base of the brain under the hypothalamus and is not larger than the peas. It usually considers the most significant part of the endocrine system because it produces hormones that control many functions of other endocrine glands. When the pituitary gland does not produce one or more hormones or there are not enough, it knows as pituitary hypotension. The pituitary gland divides into two parts: the front panel and the posterior panel. The frontal patch produces the following hormones that regulate with the hypothalamus:


Growth hormone: stimulates the growth of bones and tissues (growth hormone deficiency causes growth failure, growth hormone deficiency in adults causes problems with maintaining the proper amount of fat tissue and muscle and bone mass, as well as affects the emotional well-being).


Thyrotropin hormone (TSH): stimulates the thyroid gland to produce thyroid hormones (the lack of thyroid hormones due to a pituitary or thyroid defect is called hypothyroidism). Adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) hormone: Stimulates the adrenal glands to produce several related steroid hormones. Luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH): Hormones that control sexual function and the production of sex steroids, estrogen and progesterone in women or testosterone in men
Prolactin: A hormone that stimulates milk production in females
The hind flap produces the following hormones that are not regulated by the hypothalamus.



Antidiuretic hormone (vasopressin):

Controls the loss of water through the kidneys
Oxytocin: Endures the uterus during labor and stimulates milk production
The hormones secreted by the posterior pituitary gland are actually produced in the brain and transmitted through the nerves to the pituitary gland. They store in the pituitary gland.

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Pneumothorax symptoms & causes and Risk

Pneumothorax (noo-moe-THOR-aks) is a collapsed lung. Pneumothorax occurs when the air leaks into the space between the lung and the chest wall. This air pushes the outside of the lungs and causes it to collapse. In most cases, only part of the lungs collapses. Pneumothorax may be caused by blunt or penetrating chest injuries, some medical procedures or damage to the underlying lung disease. Or it can occur for no obvious reason. Symptoms normally include sudden chest pain and shortness of breath. In some cases, a sunken lung may be a life-threatening event.

Treatment of pneumothorax usually involves placing a flexible tube or needle between the ribs to remove excess air. However, a small pneumothorax can be treated alone.


pneumothorax symptoms

The main pneumothorax symptoms are sudden chest pain and shortness of breath. But these symptoms can be caused by various health problems, and some may be life-threatening. If your chest pain is severe or breathing becomes more difficult, immediately emergency ambulance.


pneumothorax other symptoms & (causes)

Damage to the chest. Any blunt or penetrating chest damage may cause your lungs to collapse. Some injuries can happen during physical attacks or car accidents, while others may inadvertently occur during medical procedures that involve inserting a needle into the chest. Pulmonary disease. Damaged lung tissue is more susceptible to collapse. Lung damage can be caused by many types of basic diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), cystic fibrosis and pneumonia.

Broken air bubbles. Small air bubbles (bubbles) can develop on the top of the lungs. These bubbles sometimes break – allowing the air to leak into the space surrounding the lungs. Mechanical ventilation. Severe pneumothorax can occur in people who need mechanical breathing assistance. The ventilator may cause an imbalance in the air pressure in the chest. The lung can completely collapse.


Risk factors

Your sex. Generally, men are more prone to pneumothorax than women.
Smoking. The danger increases with the length of time and the number of cigarettes smoked, even without emphysema.
Age. The type of pneumothorax caused by air bubble ruptures usually occurs in people between 20 and 40 years of age, especially if the person is very tall and underweight. Genetics. Some types of pneumothorax seem to work in families.

Pulmonary disease. Underlying lung disease – especially chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) – increases the likelihood of lung collapse. Mechanical ventilation. People who require mechanical ventilation to support breathing are more prone to pneumothorax. Previous pleural effusion. Anyone with one pneumothorax is at an increased risk of developing another, usually within one to two years of the first one.

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Bronchi Function & muscles

Take a deep breath. Now blow it up slowly. The air that you have taken or inhaled while breathing is filled with oxygen, which your body needs to generate energy for cellular activities. The air blown or exhaled is filled with carbon dioxide, which is a waste in the human body and removed during exhalation.

Breathing is a method by which the human body exchanges oxygen from the environment with carbon dioxide in the body. This is an important function of the respiratory system, and the organs responsible for the exchange of these gases are the lungs.

Bronchi Function

Bronchi, especially known as bronchus, are an extension of the trachea that transports air into the lungs and from the lungs. Think of them as roads for gas exchange, with oxygen reaching the lungs and carbon dioxide leaving the lungs through them. They are part of the respiratory conduction zone. The conduction zone, which includes the trachea and throat, is the area of the respiratory system that only transports air into and out of the body and is not part of the gas exchange process.


Each bronchi function contains cartilage, mucosa and smooth muscles. Cartilage is a connective tissue that provides support for physical processes and in this case prevents bronchial collapse during inspiration and exhalation. This is important because air conduction involves pressure that can damage soft tissue if it did not protect. The lining of the mucous membrane produces mucus, which is a thick, semi-liquid substance, intended to capture foreign particles from the lungs.



Smooth muscles also occur in every bronchus. The muscles involuntarily controller, which means that you can not control it yourself. Your body determines whether this smooth muscle shrinks or relaxes depending on whether you need less or less airflow.

Imagine: you are walking in the woods and the bear is standing in front of you. The bear growls. In the moment of panic, you start to run away. After safely moving away from the bear, you realize that you are breathing hard and breathing.

In emergency situations such as those described above, breathing is necessary for survival. More oxygen reaches more of the energy produced by the cells that are necessary for the escape, including the muscles. In such cases, the body releases norepinephrine, an emergency hormone that causes relaxation of the smooth muscle in the bronchi function, which allows you to deliver more air to the lungs and deliver more oxygen to the necessary tissues. This applies to any exciting or emergency situation, regardless of whether it is about winning a lottery, playing sports or running away from a bear above.

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Superior vena cava functions

The better main vein (SVC) is the better of the two cava veins, the great venous trunks that return oxygen-free blood from the systemic circulation to the right atrium of the heart. It is a large diameter (24 mm) vein, but short, which receives a venous return from the upper half of the body, above the diaphragm. (Venous return from the lower half, below the diaphragm, flows through the lower main vein). The SVC is located in the front right upper portion of the mediastinum. This is a typical central venous access (CVA) via a central venous catheter or central catheter placed peripherally. References to “cava” without further specification usually refer to SVC.


superior vena cava functions & structure

Superior vena cava formes with left and right brachiocephalic veins (also called veins). It also takes blood from the upper limbs, eyes, and neck, behind the lower limit of the first right bone cartilage. It flows vertically downstream of the first intercostal space and receives the azygos vein just before the puncture of fibrous pericardium opposite to the right cartilage of the hip, and its lower part is intramuscular. And then it ends in the upper and the rear part of the sine venarum right atrium, in the upper right front of the heart. It is also known as a cranial vein in other animals.



In superior vena cava functions, the lack of a valve divides the main vein from the right atrium. As a result, (right) vestibular spasms and (right) ventricles are carried to the internal jugular vein, and through the muscle can be perceived as cervical venous pressure. A better obstruction of the vena cava means a partial or complete obstruction of the superior vena cava, usually in the context of cancer, such as lung cancer, metastatic carcinoma or lymphoma.


Clogging can lead to enlarged veins in the head and neck, and can also cause shortness of breath, cough, chest pain and difficulty in swallowing. Pemberton’s sign may be positive. The obstruction-inducing tumors can be treated with chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy to reduce their effects, and corticosteroids may also be administered.[post_grid id=”473″]

fibrocartilage function

White fibrocartilage function consists of a mixture of white fibrous tissue and cartilage in various proportions. It owes its stiffness and durability to the first of these components and its flexibility to the latter. It is the only type of cartilage which, in addition to collagen type II, contains type I collagen. Fibrocartilage is found in the soft adjacent bone tissues, the pubic symphysis, the intervertebral disc, the meniscus, the triangular fibroblast, and the TMJ. During labor, it relaxes the pubic symphysis to help in childbirth, but this can lead to later problems in the joints.

Fibrocartilage function

If the vitreous cartilage is torn to the bone, the blood supply from the inside of the bone is sometimes enough to initiate treatment within the lesion. In such cases, the body creates a scar in the area, using a special type of cartilage called fibro-cartilaginous. Fibrocartilage is a hard, dense and fibrous material that helps fill the torn part of the cartilage; however, this is not a perfect replacement for smooth, glassy joint cartilage, which normally covers the surface of the joints.

Fibrocartilage callus

Fibrous callus is a temporary formation of fibroblasts and chondroblasts that forms at the point where the bone broke when the bone attempts to heal. The cells eventually dissipate and become dormant, lying in the resulting extracellular matrix, which is the new bone. Callus is the first symptom of the relationship saw on the X-ray, usually 3 weeks after the fracture. Callus formation is slower in adults than in children, as well as in cortical bone than spongy bones.



The fibroblast is a type of biological cell that synthesizes the extracellular matrix and collagen, forms a structural skeleton (framework) in animal tissues and plays a key role in wound healing. Fibroblasts are the most common connective tissue cells in animals.

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Pleural effusion symptoms & Caues & diagnosis

Pleural effusion is an unusual amount of fluid in the lungs. This can lead to many conditions, so even if the effusion in the pleural cavity can be dehydrated, the doctor will probably manage treatment for anything caused. The pleura is a pencil-thin membrane that lines the surface of the lungs and the inside of the chest. When you have pleural effusion, the fluid accumulates in the space between the layers of the pleura. Usually, in the pleural space, there are only teaspoons of liquid fluid that allow the lungs to move smoothly in the chest cavity while breathing.

pleural effusion symptoms

You can not have them. Symptoms are more likely to occur when the pleural effusion is moderate or severe, or if there is also inflammation.

If you have symptoms, they may include:

Shortness of breath
Chest pain, especially in deep breathing (this is called pleurisy or pleural pain).


pleural effusion other symptoms (Causes)

A wide range of things can cause pleural effusion. Some of the more common ones are:

The spill from other organs. This usually happens in the case of congestive heart failure, when the heart does not pump blood properly into the body. But it can also come from the liver or kidney disease when fluid accumulates in your body and penetrates into the pleural space.

Cancer. Usually, lung cancer is a problem, but other cancers that have spread in the lungs or pleura can also cause them.

Infections. Some diseases that lead to pleural effusion are pneumonia or tuberculosis.

Autoimmune conditions. Lupus or rheumatoid arthritis are some of the diseases that can cause it.

Pulmonary embolism. It is blockage of the artery in one of the lungs and can lead to pleural effusion.


Types of pleural effusions

There are several types of pleural effusion, each of which has different causes and treatment options. The first classification of pleural effusion is either permeated or exudative.


Transudational pleural effusion

This type is caused by fluid leakage into the pleural space due to a low number of blood proteins or increased blood pressure in the blood vessels. The most common cause is congestive heart failure.

Exudative effusion
This type is caused by blocked lymph or blood vessels, inflammation, tumors, lung damage
Typical conditions that can lead to this type of pleural infusion are a pulmonary embolism, pneumonia, and fungal infections.


Complicated and uncomplicated pleural effusion

There are also complicated and uncomplicated pleural effusions. Uncomplicated pleural effusions contain fluid without symptoms of infection or inflammation. They are much less likely to cause permanent lung problems.

Complicated pleural effusions, however, contain fluid with a significant infection or inflammation. They require immediate treatment, which often includes chest drainage.



Your physician will ask you about your symptoms and give you a physical exam. He touches the chest and listens with a stethoscope.

To confirm that you have pleural effusion, you need to perform imaging tests, such as:

Chest X-ray. Pleural effusion appears white on the X-ray, while the air space looks black. If the pleural effusion is likely, you can get more X-ray films when you lie on your side. They can show if the fluid flows freely in the pleural space.

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