Patella functions & Structure

The patella, also known as the kneecap, is a thick, round, triangular bone that connects to the femur and covers and protects the anterior joint surface of the knee joint.


Patella can be found in many quadrupeds, such as mice, cats, and birds, but not in whales or most reptiles. In humans, the kneecap is the largest sesamoid bone in the body. Children are born with the soft-cartilaginous patella, which begins to cure at the age of about three years.

patella functions

The basic role of the patella functions is to extend the knee. The patella increases the pressure of the quadriceps muscle on the femur, increasing the angle at which it operates.The patella attached to the tendon of the quadriceps muscle of the thigh, which contracts to prolong/straighten the knee.


Patella stabilizes with inserting the horizontal fibers of the medial portion and through the convexity of the lateral femoral condyles, which discourages lateral displacement during bending. The revolutionary patellar fibers also stabilize it during exercise.



patella Structure

The patella is a triangle-shaped bone, in the shape of a triangle, with the top of the kneecap pointing down. The top is the worst (lowest) part of the kneecap. It has a pointed shape and attaches to the patellar tendon.


The front and back surfaces connect with a thin margin and a thicker margin towards the center. The thigh of the quadriceps muscle tie to the base of the patella. The intermediate muscle attached to the base itself, and the large lateral and medial muscle adjoining the lateral and medial patellar borders, respectively.


The upper third of the patella is flattened and rough, which used to attach the quadriceps tendon and often has extrusion. The middle third has numerous vascular channels. The lower third culminates in the apex, which serves as the source of the patellar tendon. The back surface divides into two parts.

Meninges layers & Cerebra-spinal fluid

The meninges are three layers of protective tissue called the hard tire, the arachnoid fabric and the bulb surrounding the neuraxis. The brain and spinal cord tones are continuous, connected by magnum foramen.


Meninges layers

Dura Mater

The dura mater is the highest layer of the meninges layers. Its name means “hard mother” in Latin and is hard and inflexible. This tissue forms several structures that separate the cranial cavity from the compartments and protect the brain from displacement.


Falx cerebri separates the hemispheres of the brain. Falx cerebelli separates the cerebellar lobes. The cerebellar tent separates the brain from the cerebellum.

The hard tire also creates several sinuses that resemble veins that carry blood (which has already supplied oxygen and nutrients to the brain) back to the heart. The upper sagittal bay runs through the upper part of the brain in the anterolateral direction.


Other sinuses include the straight sinus, lower sinus, and transverse sinus.

Epidural space is the potential space between the dura mater and the skull. If there is a hemorrhage in the brain, the blood may collect here. Adults are more likely than children to bleed here due to a closed head injury. Subdural space is another potential space.


It is between the hard tire and the middle layer of the meninges, arachnoid matter. When the bleeding appears in the skull, the blood can collect here and push the lower layers of the tires. If the bleeding persists, this brain pressure will be damaged. In children, bleeding in the subdural space is particularly likely.


Arachnoid mater


Arachnids or arachnids are the middle layers of meninges layers. In some areas protrudes into the sinuses formed by the dura mater. These predictions are the granulation of the arachnoid/villi of arachnoid. They transfer the cerebrospinal fluid from the chambers back to the bloodstream.


The subarachnoid space lies between the arachnid and pianos. It fills with cerebrospinal fluid. All blood vessels pass through the brain such as cranial nerves pass through this space. The term arachubias refers to a spider’s web like the appearance of blood vessels in space.


Pia Mater


Pia mater is the most inner layer of meninges layers. Unlike other layers, this tissue adheres closely to the brain, draining to the furrows of the bark. It connects to the enemy, the membranous lining of the chambers, creating structures called choroidal plexuses that produce the cerebrospinal fluid.


Cerebro-spinal fluid


Cerebrospinal fluid clear fluid produces in the brain spaces called chambers. Like saliva, it is a blood filtrate. It also occurs inside the subarachnoid space of the meninges, which surrounds both the brain and the spinal cord.

In addition, the space inside the spinal cord called the central canal also contains cerebrospinal fluid. It acts as a cushion for neuraxis, and also provides nutrients to the brain and spinal cord and removes waste from the system.


Choroid weave


All chambers contain choroidal plexuses that produce cerebrospinal fluid, allowing certain blood components to enter the chambers. The choroidal strands are formed by the fusion of the pad, the innermost layer of the tires and the lining, the mucous membrane of the chambers.




These four spaces are filled with cerebrospinal fluid and protect the brain, cushioning it and supporting its weight.


Two side chambers extend over a large area of ​​the brain. The front corners of these structures are found in the frontal lobes. They extend back to the parietal lobes, and their lower corners are located in the temporal lobe.


The third chamber lies between two thalamic bodies. The intermedia mass passes through it, and the hypothalamus forms its bottom and part of the side walls.


The fourth chamber locates between the cerebellum and bridges. The four chambers connect to each other. The two Munro foraminous, which are also known as the ventricular opening, connect the lateral ventricles to the third chamber.


The aqueduct of Sylwiusz, also known as the aqueduct of the brain, connects the third and fourth chambers. The fourth chamber is connected to the subarachnoid space by means of two Luschka lateral openings and one Magendia central opening.


Subarachnoid space


Although the cerebrospinal fluid produced in all chambers, it circulates in a system in a certain way, moving from the lateral ventricle to the third and then from the third to the fourth.


From the fourth chamber, the cerebrospinal fluid passes into the subarachnoid space, where it circulates around the outer part of the brain and spinal cord and finally goes to the upper sagittal bay by arachnoid granulation called the arachnoid villi.


In the upper spinal sinus, cerebrospinal fluid reabsorbed into the bloodstream. Cerebrospinal fluid neuraxis regenerates several times in twenty-four hours. Endolymphs and perilymphs, fluids.

vitreous humor function & Glass cell detachment

Light enters the eye through the cornea, pupil, and lens and is then transmitted through the vitreous to the retina. Fills the space between the lens and the retina (80% of the volume of the eyeball), which lined the back of the eye and helps to keep the retina in place, pushing it to the choroid. The space it fills is called the vitreous body.


vitreous humor function


vitreous humor function that is attached to the retina break away from the retinal surface and separate from the retina. It can cause glassy floats. Water humor, fluid in the front part of the eye, is constantly replenished. However, the gel in the vitreous body is not. Therefore, if the remains of these tiny cracks in the retina get into the vitreous, they will remain there.

These debris or small tissue spots are called floats. In the vision, they may look like dots, dust, spiderweb or strings. You see the shadow of this debris when the light is thrown on the volleyball.

They can be annoying and disturb the reading. However, most ophthalmologists consider them harmless and a normal sign of aging.



Glass cell detachment (PVD)

Posterior vitreous (PVD) stratification is a common disorder seen in people 60 years of age and older and increasingly more common after the age of 80. This detachment is usually the result of normal age-related changes in the glass gel in which the gel shrinks and separates from the retina.


It may also result from an eye injury or inflammation caused by surgery or disease. With age, the glass gel in the middle of the eye begins to change. Parts of the gel contract and lose fluid.

When these changes cause the glass gel suddenly shrinks and separates from the retina, it is called posterior vitreous detachment.

The detachment of the posterior vitreous body usually does not cause any problems, but it may increase the risk of retinal detachment or sometimes cause tears in the retina.

At the points where the glass gel is strongly connected to the retina, the gel can pull the retina so strongly that it tears the retina. The tear then allows the fluid to accumulate under the retina, which can lead to retinal detachment. 

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Pupil function & Controlling the pupil

The pupil of the eye is a black circle in the middle of the iris. Iris is a colorful ring in the eye with color and structure unique to each person. From the outside of the eye, the light passes through the transparent lens and then through the pupil. When the light reaches the tissues in the back of the eye, it is absorbed, making the pupil look black.


pupil function

 The purpose of the iris and pupil function is to control the amount of light reaching the eye. This is called pupillary reflex and you probably noticed that the pupil’s pupils are smaller in bright light and bigger in low light.iris changes and expands involuntarily and changes the size of the pupil.


It is the pupil controlling the amount of light passing through the eye lens to the retina at the back of the eye. However, there is some inconsistency in the size and shape of the student. In younger people, the size of the pupil is usually larger, and about 20% of the population has two pupils who do not have the same size. You probably also noticed that not all students are round. Some animals, such as cats and snakes, have long pupils.

Controlling the pupil


The pupil function has two sets of muscles: Sphincter muscles narrow the pupil like a string.
The thinning muscles that radiate from the middle of the iris help to dilate the pupil.
Behind the scenes, there is a long nerve that helps the eye react to changing conditions. This nerve takes a surprising path through the body, starting with the brain, and then moving down the spinal cord, passing over the lungs, through the neck, back through the part of the brain, and finally to the student. Because of this strange way, problems with the brain, upper lungs, and some eye health problems can be discovered when there is an unexpected change in students.

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fovea function & Entoptic effects in the hole

The fovea is the central part of the retina, which contains only cones (zone free of rods). Creates a site that provides the sharpest image and the largest color discrimination. It is in the middle of a yellow spot.


Fovea function


Illustration of the distribution of conical cells in the central well of a person with normal color vision (left) and retinal color (protanopia). Note that there are very few blue-sensitive cones in the center of the wall. In the primate (including humans) the ratio of ganglion cells to photoreceptors is about 2.5; almost every coil cell receives data from a single cone, and each one feeds from 1 to 3 coil cells.


Therefore, the foveal visual acuity limit only with the density of the conical mosaic, and the dimple is the area of ​​the eye with the highest sensitivity to small details. Cones in the middle hole express pigments sensitive to green and red light. These cones are “dwarf” paths that also support the high sharpness of the well.


The hole is used for accurate vision in the direction in which it is directed. It covers less than 1% of the size of the retina, but it occupies more than 50% of the visual cortex in the brain. Fovea only sees the middle two degrees of field of view (about twice as much as your miniature at your fingertips).


If the object is large and therefore covers a large angle, the eyes must constantly shift the eyesight to then insert the different parts of the image into the fovea (as in reading).


Another Fovea function


Arrangement of rods and cones along the line passing through the middle hole and the blind spot of the human eye Because the hole has no rods, it is not sensitive to poor lighting. Hence, to observe dark stars, astronomers use inverted vision, looking at the side of the eyes, where the density of rods is larger, and therefore weaker objects are easier to see.


fovea function


Fovea function has a high concentration of yellow carotenoid pigments, lutein, and zeaxanthin. They concentrate the Henle fiber layer (photoreceptor axons that run radially outward from the well) and to a lesser extent in the cones. They believe to play a protective role against the effects of high-intensity blue light that can damage sensitive cones.


The pigments also increase the sharpness of the good hole, reducing the sensitivity of the well to short wavelengths and counteracting the effect of chromatic aberration. This is accompanied by a lower density of blue cones in the middle of the hole. The maximum density of blue cones occurs in the ring around the well. Therefore, the maximum sharpness for blue light is lower than for other colors and is approximately 1 ° Celsius


Entoptic effects in the hole


The presence of pigment in the radially aligned axons of the Henle fiber layer makes it dichroic and birefringent to the blue light. This effect is visible through the Haidinger brush when the dimple points to a polarized light source.

The combined effect of the macular pigment and the distribution of short-waved cones causes the well to be less sensitive to blue light (blue light scarlet). Although this is not visible under normal conditions due to the brain’s “filling” of information, under certain blue light patterns, a dark spot is visible in the focus. Furthermore, if a mixture of red and blue light is viewed (by viewing white light through a dichroic filter), the focal point of the well will have a central red spot surrounded by several red stripes. This is called Maxwell’s place after James Clerk Maxwell who discovered it.

Ganglion cells function & Distribution of retinal ganglion cells

 ganglion cells and their support cells contain the optic nerve. The optic nerve receives a visual signal in orbit and moves back and forth through the visual channel. Then it leads to fiber. At this point, the fibers from the temporal fields are broken up. The fibers then pass through optical paths. Most of the axons of the optic nerve end in the lateral nucleus.


Some other axons end in the suprachining nucleus, an area in which light is used to regulate the sleep and wake cycle. From the lateral nucleus, two optical irradiations, one temporal and one occipital, transmit visual information to the original visual cortex of the occipital lobe.


ganglion cells function

Retinal ganglion cells function (RGC) encode various features of the visual environment and send this information to the brain where they are processed for perception and behavior. RGC connections are extremely precise to ensure accurate visual processing.


For example, neighboring RGCs project on neighboring parts of their targets and thus provide information about the spatial location of objects in the environment. Moreover, different RGCs functionally display different depths or “layers” within their targets, thereby establishing parallel circuits for analyzing various visual scene features such as motion, color or brightness.


From a developmental perspective, each component of eye-brain communication translates into a different requirement for axon development, pathfinding, and target recognition during development.



Thus, understanding the full sequence of events that enable RGC to link to their goals is crucial not only for understanding the genesis of vision, but also a comprehensive model to examine how complex neuron circuits are built. Here we review studies focusing on how mammalian RGCs establish precise synaptic connections in the brain.


In this way, we often mention experiments carried out on lower vertebrates and Drosophila, because they constitute a conceptual framework for thinking about cellular and molecular mechanisms that generate the specificity of a circumference.


In this review, we also highlight important aspects of eye development from the brain to mammals that remain poorly understood, in the hope that our readers will be inspired to design and implement experiments to clarify them.



Distribution of retinal ganglion cells

Retinal ganglion cells function is relatively evenly distributed in the retina of the rat, density ranges from 3,000 cells per mm2 in the area of ​​the highest density (central region) to 600 cells per mm2 in the peripheral retina.


The dimensions of dendritic retinal ganglion cells located in the central region do not differ significantly from their peripheral counterparts (Perry, 1979, Dreher et al., 1984, Sun et al., 2002b). A flat density gradient raises the question of whether exploratory fixation – eye movement to obtain an image of an object of interest in a high-resolution region – occurs in rats.


In rats, as in mammals with well-developed exploratory eye movements (eg Cats or primate), stimulation of the upper sternum (SC) induces coupled saccadic movements of the eye and there is a clear relationship between the retinotopic map and the topographic representation of the eye movement fields in SC (McHaffie) and Stein, 1982).


However, eye movements in freely moving rats are usually uncoupled, with particular emphasis on maintaining the top field of the binoculars, rather than perpetuating the target (Wallace et al., 2013).

Ganglion Cell Density and Behavioral Acuity

The eye of a rat with a hood is able to optimally solve the 12-minute angle of view (Hughes and Wässle, 1979). The maximum spatial resolution of the retinal ganglion cells adapted to the dark or light recorded from the visual path of a hooded rat, however, is only about 1.2 cycles/degree or about 25 minutes of viewing angle (Friedman and Green, 1982); this value is closer to behavioral focus measures (Birch and Jacobs, 1979, Prusky et al., 2002) and is consistent with 1.3 cycles/grade predicted from peak coil density (Dreher et al., 1984; Hess et al. ., 1985).


The absolute sensitivity thresholds for pigmented rats are comparable to the mean absolute threshold for humans adapted to the dark. The sampling depth of the ganglion cells system is, therefore, the border point supporting the borderline of the behavioral focus near the 1-2 cycle/degree. Albino rats exhibit less sensitivity to light and less behavioral focus compared to pigmented rats.

Pia mater function & Permeability

Pia mater often referred to simply as pia, is a delicate inner layer of tires, membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord. Pia mater is a medieval Latin meaning “delicate mother.”  The other two membrane membranes are the hard tire and the arachnoid. Both pia and spider veins are derivatives of the neural crest, while dura comes from embryonic mesoderm.


The foam is a thin fibrous tissue permeable to water and small solutes. Sand allows the blood vessels to pass and nourish the brain. It suggests that the perivascular space between the blood vessels and the pia is part of the brain’s psuedolymphatic system (lymphatic system). In the case of irritation and distension of the pleura, meningitis is formed.

Pia mater function

In combination with other meningitis membranes, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and skull wall formation are necessary.  CSF, pia mater and other tire layers. Production and circulation of Cerebrospinal fluid circulate in the chambers, cisterns and subarachnoid spaces in the brain and spinal cord. About 150 ml of cerebrospinal fluid is always in circulation because constantly recycled through the daily production of almost 500 ml of liquid.


CSF is mainly secreted by the choroid plexus; however, about one-third of CSF is secreted by the pianos and other ventricular lining areas (the thin epithelial lining of the brain and the central channel) and the spider-like membranes.


CSF travels from the ventricles and cerebellum through three foraminous in the brain, draining to the brain and ending its cycle in venous blood through structures such as arachnoid granulation. The sand covers every surface aperture of the brain other than the aperture to allow circulation of the CSF.

Perivascular spaces

Pia material allows the creation of perivascular spaces that serve as the lymphatic system of the brain because The blood vessels that penetrate the brain first pass through the surface and then go to the brain. This direction of flow leads to the fact that the layer of the matter of the pianos transfer inwardly and loosely adheres to the vessels, leading to the creation of space, namely the perivascular space, between the bulb and each blood vessel.


This is very important because the brain lacks a real lymphatic system. In the rest of the body small amounts of protein are able to leak from the capillaries of the parenchyma through the lymphatic system. In the brain ends in the interstitial space.


Protein portions are able to leave the highly permeable foam material and enter the subarachnoid space to flow in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), ultimately ending in the cerebral veins.


Pia mater function uses to create these perivascular spaces to allow the passage of certain materials, such as liquids, proteins, and even foreign solid particles, such as dead white blood cells from the bloodstream into the cerebrospinal fluid and basically the brain.




Due to the high permeability of foam and ependyma, water and small molecules in the cerebrospinal fluid are able to enter the interstitial fluid of the brain, so interstitial brain fluid and cerebrospinal fluid is very similar in composition.


However, the regulation of this permeability achieves due to a large number of astrocyte rate processes that are responsible for combining the capillaries and the material hub in a way that helps to limit the amount of diffusion that passes to the CNS.


The pia mater function simply visualizes through these ordinary events. This last property is visible in the case of head injuries. When the head comes into contact with another object, the brain protects from the skull due to the similarity of density between the two fluids, so that the brain not only breaks down in the skull but rather its movement slow down and stopped by the viscous ability of this fluid.


The contrast of permeability between the sender and the blood-brain barrier means that many drugs that enter the bloodstream can not enter the brain.

Primary visual cortex functions & V1 neurons

The primary visual cortex is the most studied area of vision in the brain. In mammals, it is located in the posterior pole of the occipital lobe and is the simplest, earliest cortical field of view. It is highly specialized in processing information about static and moving objects and is perfectly suited for pattern recognition.


primary visual cortex functions


The functionally defined visual cortex is approximately equivalent to an anatomically defined striated cortex [desired clarity] The name “striate cortex” derives from the Gennari line, a characteristic bar visible to the naked eye, which represents myelinated axons with a lateral thorny body ending with a gray matter layer 4.

The primary visual cortex functions divide into six functionally distinct layers, the number from 1 to 6. Layer 4, which receives the most visual contribution from the lateral nucleus. It further divides into 4 layers, designated 4A, 4B, 4Cα, and 4Cβ. Sublamina 4Cα  mainly receives the magnocellular input data from the LGN, whereas the 4Cβ layer receives input data from the intercellular pathways.

The average number of neurons in the primary human cortex on each hemisphere was estimated at around 140 million.


V1 has a very well-defined spatial information map in the vision. For example, in humans, the upper edge of the calcarine furrow reacts strongly to the lower half of the field of vision (below the center).


The lower edge of the calcarine to the upper half of the field of view. In the concept, this retinotopic mapping is a transformation of the visual image from the retina to V1.



The relationship between a given location in V1 and the subjective field of view is very precise. The dead fields maps in V1. When it comes to evolution, this correspondence is very simple and occurs in most animals with V1. In humans a retinal cavity, a large portion of V1  maps to a small. The central part of the field of view, a phenomenon known as cortical enlargement.


Perhaps for the purpose of precise spatial coding, the neurons in V1 have the smallest size of the reception field in any of the microscopic regions of the primary visual cortex functions.


V1 neurons


The tuning properties of V1 neurons (which neurons react to) vary significantly over time. Early (40 ms and beyond) individual V1 neurons have strong tuning to a small set of stimuli. This means that neuronal responses can distinguish small changes in visual orientations, spatial frequencies, and colors.


In addition, individual V1 neurons in humans and animals with binocular vision have ocular dominance. It namely fine-tuning to one of two eyes. In V1 and the primary sensory cortex in general, neurons with similar tuning properties tend to merge together in cortical columns.



David Hubel and Torsten Wiesel proposed a classic model for the organization of ice cubes in cortical columns for two tuning properties: dominance and eye orientation. However, this model can not accommodate color, spatial frequency and many other features to which neurons are tuned.

Optic nerve function & Structure

The optic nerve is located in the back of the eye. It is also called the second cranial nerve. This is the second of several cranial nerve pairs. The task of the optic nerve is to transmit visual information from the retina to the brain’s viewing centers by means of electrical impulses.


Optic nerve function

 The optic nerve function consists of ganglion cells or nerve cells. It consists of over one million nerve fibers. Our dead point is caused by the lack of specialized photosensitive cells or photoreceptors in the part of the retina in which the optic nerve leaves the eye.


Glaucoma is one of the most common diseases affecting the optic nerve. Glaucoma cause from high intraocular pressure or high pressure in the fluid inside the eye (glassy fluid). This high pressure compresses the optic nerve and causes cell death. This is known as atrophy of the optic nerve.


Although the optic nerve is part of the eye, it considers being part of the central nervous system.





Structure of optic nerve classifies as the second of the twelve paired cranial nerves. It is technically part of the central nervous system, not of the peripheral nervous system, because it comes from the outflow of the diencephalon (optic stalks) during embryonic development.

As a consequence, optic nerve fibers coated with myelin produce from dendrocytes and not by Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system and are encapsulated in the meninges of the brain. Peripheral neuropathies, such as Guillain-Barré syndrome, do not affect the optic nerve. However, most often the optic nerve group with other eleven cranial nerves and considered part of the peripheral nervous system.

The optic nerve rather covers in all three layers of the tire (tire, arachnoid, and tire) than epineurium, perineurium, and endoneurium occurring in the peripheral nerves.


The fibrous pathways of the central nervous system of mammals (in contrast to the peripheral nervous system) are incapable of regeneration, and thus damage to the optic nerve causes irreversible blindness. Retinal fibers run along the optic nerve to the nine primary visual nuclei in the brain from which the main transmitter enters the original visual cortex.


A photo of the fundus showing the back of the retina. The white circle is the beginning of the optic nerve.
It consists of axons of retinal ganglion cells and glial cells. Each human optic nerve contains from 770,000 to 1.7 million nerve fibers, which are the axons of retinal ganglion motile cells. In a well that has high stringency, because ganglion cells connect to only 5 photoreceptor cells; in other areas of the retina, they connect with many thousands of photoreceptors.



Others Optic nerve function

Optic nerve leaves the orbit through the visual channel. It is running on the medial side towards the visual muzzle. The partial decomposition of the fibers from the temporal visual fields (nasopharyngeal) of both eyes occurs. The proportion of splitting fibers varies depending on the species and correlate with the binocular grade that the species enjoy.


Most of the optic nerve axons end up in the lateral nucleus. It information pass to the visual cortex, while other axons end up in the pre-temporal nucleus and take part in the reflex movements of the eyes.


Other axons end in the supra chiasm nucleus and take part in the regulation of the sleep and wakefulness cycle. Its diameter increases from about 1.6 mm in the eye to 3.5 mm in the orbit up to 4.5 mm in the space of the skull.


The length of the optic nerve component is 1 mm on the globe. It is 24 mm on the orbit, 9 mm on the visual canal and 16 mm in the space of the skull before attachment to the visual band. There is a partial decomposition, and about 53% of the fibers intersect to form optical lines. Most of these fibers end in the lateral elbow body.

Hair follicle infection symptoms and their types

Inflammation of the hair follicles is a frequent condition of the skin in which inflammation of the hair follicle occurs. This is usually caused by a bacterial or fungal infection. In the beginning, it may look like small red protuberances or white pimples around the hair follicles – tiny pockets from which hair grows. The infection can spread and turn into unhealthy, crunchy wounds.

The disease does not threaten life, but it can be itchy, sore and embarrassing. Severe infections can start point permanent hair loss and scarring. If you have a mild case, you will most likely remove basic self-care measures within a few days. If you have more severe or recurrent folliculitis, you may need to contact your doctor to obtain a prescription medicine.


Some types of folliculitis are known as a rash in a hot tub, razor nodules, and itchy hairdresser.


Hair follicle infection Types

The two main types of folliculitis are superficial and deep. The surface type includes the part of the bubble, and the deep type covers the entire bubble and is usually heavier.

Forms of superficial folliculitis include:


Bacterial inflammation of the hair follicle infection.

This typical type is characterized by itchy, white, pus-filled nodules. It occurs when the hair follicles are infected with bacteria, usually Staphylococcus aureus (Staphylococcus aureus). Staph bacteria live on the skin all the time. But generally, they cause problems only when they enter your body through a wound or other wound.


Inflammation of the hair follicle infection in a hot tub (inflammation of the pseudomonas follicles).

In this type, a rash of red, round, itchy bumps may occur from one to two days after exposure to the bacteria that cause it. Inflammation of the hair follicles caused by the hot tub is caused by Pseudomonas bacteria that occur in many places, including hot baths and heated pools, where the chlorine level and pH is not well regulated.


Abdominal tumors (pseudofolliculitis barbae).

It is skin irritation causes with ingrown hairs. It mainly concerns men with curly hair that shave too close and are most visible on the face and neck. People who get bikini waxes can develop itchy hairdresser’s groin. This condition may cause dark scars (keloids).
Inflammation of hair follicles Pityrosporum. This type causes chronic, red, itchy pustules on the back and chest, and sometimes on the neck, arms, arms, and face. This type causes with a yeast infection.
Forms of deep folliculitis include:



Barbie Sycosis.

This type applies to men who have begun to shave.
Gram-negative folliculitis. This type develops sometimes if you are receiving long-term antibiotic therapy for acne.
Boils (boils) and bits. They occur when the hair follicles deeply infected with staph bacteria. Cooking usually appears suddenly as a painful pink or red tumor. The carbide is a cluster of boils.


Eosinophil folliculitis.

This type affects people with HIV / AIDS. Symptom includes intense itching and recurring patches of nodules and pimples that form near the hair follicles of the face and upper body. After healing, the affected skin may be darker than before (discolored). 



Folliculitis signs and symptoms include:

Clusters of small red bumps or white-headed pimples that develop around hair follicles
Pus-filled blisters that break open and crust over
Itchy, burning skin
Painful, tender skin
A large swollen bump or mass

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