Dermis function & Dermal papillae

NoThe dermis or corium is a layer of skin between the epidermis (with which it forms the skin) and the subcutaneous tissue, which consists mainly of dense irregular connective tissue and absorbs the body from stress and tension. It is divided into two layers, the surface area adjacent to the epidermis is called the papillary region and the deeper area known as reticulate skin. The dermis is closely connected to the epidermis through the basal membrane. The structural components of the dermis are collagen, elastic fibers and a matrix in the form of fibers. Read below dermis function.



Dermis function


Papillary dermis


The papillary skin is the highest layer of the dermis. Intertwined with the backs of the epidermis and consists of small and loosely arranged collagen fibers. The papillary region consists of loose connective tissue. The name comes from its finger-like projections called warts that extend towards the epidermis and contain either the terminal capillary networks or the tactile Meissner body.


Reticulate skin


Reticulated skin is the lower layer of the dermis, located under the papillary skin, composed of dense, irregular connective tissue with densely packed collagen fibers. This is the main location for flexible skin fibers. 


The mesh region is usually much thicker than the above-lying papillary skin. It owes its name to the dense concentration of collagen, elastic and mesh fibers that intertwine in it. These protein fibers give the dermis proper strength, stretchability and elasticity. Within the reticulate, there are roots of the hair, sebaceous glands, sweat glands, receptors, nails, and blood vessels. The orientation of collagen fibers in the reticular skin forms tension lines called Langer’s lines, which have some significance in surgery and wound healing.



Dermal papillae


The dermal papillae (DP) (singular papilla, diminutive of Latin papula, ‘pimple’) are small, nipple-like extensions (or interdigitations) of the dermis into the epidermis. At the surface of hands and feet, they appear as epidermal or papillary ridges (colloquially known as fingerprints).


Blood cells in the dermal papillae nourish all hair follicles and bring oxygen to the layers of epidermal cells. The pattern of the ridges. Remain functions They throughout throughout throughout throughout throughout, throughout, throughout, throughout, throughout, throughout.


The dermal papillae are part of the uppermost layer of the dermis, the papillary dermis, and the ridges of the dermis and epidermis. Because the main function of the dermis is to support the epidermis, this greatly increases the exchange of oxygen, nutrients, and waste products. Addiction, the increase in the surface of the dermal and epidermal layers of the junction between them. With age, the papillae tend to flatten and sometimes increase in number. 


Dermal papillae also play a pivotal role in hair formation, growth, and cycling.  In mucous membranes, the corresponding structures are dermal papillae are generally termed “connective tissue papillae”, which interdigitate with the rete pegs of the superficial epithelium.

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Tendons functions & Bone healing

Tendon or sin is a hard bone of fibrous connective tissue. It usually connects muscle to bone. Tendons similar to ligaments; Both are made of collagen. Strips join one bone to the other bone, while the tendons connect muscle to the bone perform the normal functioning of the body.


tendons functions

Traditionally, tendons have been thought of as a mechanism in which the muscles connect to the bone. It as well as the muscles themselves, which function to transfer forces.


This bone allows the tendons to passively appease the forces during movements, thus providing additional stability without active work. However, over the past two decades, extensive research has focused on the elastic properties of certain tendons and their ability to function as springs.


Not all tendons functions need to implement the same functionality. Its some limbs primarily position, such as fingers when writing (tendon tendons) and others acting as springs to make movement more efficient (energy storage tendons).


Energy storage crops can store and restore energy with high efficiency. For example, during a human step, the Achilles tendon stretch like a common ankle dorsiflexes. During the last part of the step, as plantar feet, the elastic energy store. Moreover, the muscle is able to function with less or even no change in length, allowing the muscle to generate greater strength.



The mechanical properties in tendons functions

The mechanical properties of the tendon depend on the collagen fiber diameter and orientation. Collagen fibers are parallel to each other and packed well, but they show a wave-like appearance due to planar glides or rulers on a scale of several micrometers.


In the tendons, collagen fibers have some elasticity due to the absence of hydroxyproline and proline residues in specific places in the amino acid sequence, which allows for the formation of other confirmations such as bending or inner helical coil loops and the development results of crimps.


In other tendons functions, The crimps of collagen fibrils allow tendons to have some flexibility as well as low compression stiffness. The tendon multi-stranded structure made up of many fibers and independent masks, it does not act as a single rod, and this feature also contributes to its flexibility.



Proteoglycan components

Proteoglycan components of the tendons are also important in mechanical properties. While collagen fibers allow tendons to resist tensile stress, proteoglycans allow them to withstand compression pressure.


These molecules are very hydrophilic, meaning they can absorb a large amount of water and therefore have a high swelling ratio. Since they connect regardless of the fracture, they may link and reduce the bridge so that the bridges between the fibers can be broken and refreshed.


This process may involve allowing fibril to extend and reduce diameter under stress. However, proteoglycans can also have a role in the tensile properties of the tendon. The tendon structure is actually a composite fibrous material, constructed as a series of hierarchical levels.


At each rank of the hierarchy, collagen units are bound together by collagen connections. The proteoglycans, to create a very durable tensile load structure.

The extension and strain of collagen fibers alone show to be much lower than the elongation and overall strain of the entire tendon under the same amount of stress, demonstrating that matrix-rich proteoglycan must also undergo deformation, and the hardening of the matrix occurs at high rates.


This distortion of the non-collagen matrix takes place at all levels of the tendon hierarchy, and by adapting the organization and the structure of this matrix. It is possible to obtain the different mechanical properties required by different tendons.


Energy storage crops illustrate to significant amounts of sliding between scales to allow for the high strain characteristics they require, while positional tendons rely more on sliding between fibers and collagen fibers.


However, recent data suggest that energy storage crops may also contain scales that deform, or helical, in nature – this arrangement would be very beneficial for providing spring-like behavior required for these tendons.




The leg tendons are very complex and complex. Therefore, the healing process of a broken tendon is long and painful. Most people who do not receive medical care within the first 48 hours of the injury will suffer from severe swelling, pain, and burning sensation at the site where the injury occurred.


It believes that tendons cannot undergo a matrix cycle and that the tenocytes were not able to repair. However, since it shows that over a person’s lifetime, active tensile tenocytes synthesize matrix components, as well as enzymes such as matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), can degrade the matrix.


Tendons are capable of healing and recovery from injuries in a process controlled by the tenocytes and their surrounding extracellular matrix.

Capillaries function & Structure

Capillary is a blood vessel. It has no muscular/elastic tissue of other blood vessels. It has a single cell wall to help the materials be transported through organisms. Small capillaries, and smaller than any other blood vessel. They are about 5-10 μm large, which connect arterial and vascular and allow the transfer of water, oxygen, carbon dioxide, as well as many other nutrients and chemicals wastes between blood and surrounding tissues.


capillaries function


The blood moves from the heart to the arteries, which branch out and narrow into smaller arteries, and then branch into the capillaries. Once the oxygen has been transferred to the capillary tissue, join and expand to become small veins and then expand more to become veins, which return blood to the heart.


“Capillary function bed” is a network of capillaries that provide an organ. The more active metabolic cells, the more capillaries it will require to provide nutrients to carry waste products.


Special arteries connect between arterioles and venules and are important to bypass blood flow through the capillaries. Real capillaries mainly come from metarterioles and provide movement between cells and circulation. Width of 8 μm forces the red blood cells to partially fold into shapes like a sphere to circumvent them in a single file.


Papillary muscles are rings of smooth muscles at the beginning of the real capillaries that treat blood flow to the real capillaries and control blood flow through the body part or surface.



A capillary wall is a single layer tissue so thin that gas and other items such as oxygen, water, proteins, and fats can pass through them driven by pressure differentials. Waste items such as carbon dioxide and urea can move back into the blood to drift away from the body.


The capillary bed usually moves no more than 25% of the amount of blood it can contain, although this amount can be increased by automated regulation by making the smooth muscle relaxation in the veins leading to the capillary bed as well as the metarterioles make themselves smaller.


Capillaries do not have a smooth muscle in their wall, so any change in their width is passive. All the signaling molecules that they release work on the smooth muscle cells in the nearby vessel walls.  for example,  arterioles Capillary capacity to transfer items can be increased by the release of certain cytokines, such as the body that protects itself from bacteria form.[post_grid id=”473″]

Lymph function & Development

Lymph is a fluid that flows through the lymphatic system, a system composed of lymphatic vessels (channels) and intervening lymph nodes, whose function, as the venous system, is the return of fluid from tissues to the central circulation. Interstitial fluid between cells in all body tissues enters the lymphatic capillaries. This lymph fluid is then transported by the larger lymphatic vessels through the lymph nodes, where the substances are removed by the tissue lymphocytes, and circulating lymphocytes are added to the fluid, before finally emptying into the right or left subclavian vein, where it is mixed with central blood.

Lymph function


The Lymph function restores proteins and excess interstitial fluid to the bloodstream. Lymph can collect bacteria and carry them to lymph nodes where they are destroyed. Metastatic cancer cells can also be transported through the lymph. Lymph also carries fats from the digestive system (starting from lacteals) into the blood via chylomicrons.


The tubular vessels transport the lymph back into the blood, eventually replacing the volume lost during interstitial fluid formation. These channels are lymphatic channels or simply lymphatic vessels. 


Unlike the cardiovascular system, the lymphatic system is not closed and there is no central pump or lymphatic heart (which can be found in some animals). That is why lymph transport is slow and sporadic. Despite the low pressure, lymph movement occurs due to peristalsis (lymph drive due to alternating contraction and relaxation of smooth muscle tissue), valves and pressure during contraction of adjacent skeletal muscles and arterial pulsation.


The lymph that enters the lymphatic vessels from the interstitial space usually does not flow back along the vessels due to the presence of valves. If excessive hydrostatic pressure develops in the lymph vessels, some of the fluid may leak back into the interstitial space and contribute to the formation of edema.



Blood provides nutrients and important metabolites to tissue cells. It receives the waste products they produce, which requires the exchange of appropriate components between blood and tissue cells. This exchange is not direct, but it is mediated by an intermediary called interstitial fluid that occupies spaces between cells. Because the blood and surrounding cells constantly add and remove substances from the interstitial fluid, its composition is constantly changing.


Water and dissolved substances can pass between interstitial fluid and blood through diffusion through the fissures in the walls of capillaries called intracellular splits; in this way, the blood and interstitial fluid are in a dynamic balance with each other. 


Interstitial fluid forms in the arterial (heart-shaped) end of the capillaries due to the higher blood pressure compared to the veins, and most of them return to the venous ends and veins; the rest (up to 10%) enter the capillaries of the lymph as lymph. Thus, the lymph, when it forms, is a watery clear liquid with the same composition as the interstitial fluid. However, when it flows through the lymph nodes, it comes in contact with blood and tends to accumulate more cells (especially lymphocytes) and proteins.

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Lunula function and their Health Conditions

Lunula or lunulae is a whitish crescent-shaped area of the nail. Lunula is the visible part of the nail root.

In humans, it appears up to the 14th week of pregnancy and plays a major structural role in defining the free edge of the distal nail plate (part of the nail that grows outside).


Lunula function


It is located at the end of the nail (the closest to the skin of the finger) but still lies under the nail. In fact, it is not white but appears only when it is visible through the nail. The contour nail matrix is ​​a very delicate part of the nail structure. If someone damages the skull, the nail will be permanently deformed. Even after removing the entire nail, the lunula stays in place and is similar to another smaller nail embedded in the nail bed.


In most cases, it has a crescent shape and has unique histological features. Studies have shown that lunula was an area of ​​the loose dermis with less developed collagen bundles. It seems whitish because the thickened basal layer covers the underlying blood vessels.


Lunula function is the most noticeable on the thumb; however, not all lunulae are visible. In some cases, the eponychium may partially or completely cover the cover.



Lunula speaks about the health of the human body.


Normal conditions


1. Quantity: it would be better to have between 8 and 10 lunches on both hands;
2. Shape: it would be better to take one-fifth of the nail;
3. Color: it would be better in ivory color. Whiter the better, which means that the person is stronger.



Abnormal conditions


The development of lunula depends on nutrition, the environment, and physical quality. When the function of digestion and absorption is poor, the lunula darkens, decreases and even disappears.


A large lunula indicates the rapid circulation of blood, while the small lunula indicates a poor blood circulation; lunula disappears under the influence of severe anemia. The less lunula a person has, the lower the energy, colder constitution and the weaker immunity he has, so his body, feet, and hands are always cold.

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Epidermis function & Permeability

The epidermis is the outermost of the three layers forming the skin, and the inner layers are the proper and subcutaneous skin.  The epidermal layer is a barrier to infection with environmental pathogens and regulates the amount of water released from the body into the atmosphere through transepidermal water loss. The epidermis consists of multiple layers of flattened cells that cover the base layer (the base layer) composed of column cells arranged perpendicularly.

Epidermis function


The epidermis function serves as a barrier that protects the body against microbial pathogens, oxidative stress (UV light) and chemical compounds, and provides mechanical resistance to minor injuries. Most of this barrier is played by the stratum corneum. Physical barrier: epidermal keratinocytes are tightly bound by cell-cell connections associated with cytoskeleton proteins, giving the epidermis its mechanical strength.



Chemical barrier: Highly organized lipids, acids, hydrolytic enzymes, and antimicrobial peptides inhibit the penetration of external chemical substances and pathogens into the body.
An immunologically active barrier: the humoral and cellular components of the immune system located in the epidermis actively fight infection.


The water content in the stratum corneum drops towards the surface, creating hostile conditions for the development of pathogenic microorganisms.


Acid pH (about 5.0) and a small amount of water make the epidermis hostile to many microbial pathogens. 
Non-pathogenic microorganisms on the surface of the epidermis help to defend against pathogens, competing for food, limiting its accessibility and producing chemical secretions that inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacterial flora.




Psychological stress, through the growth of glucocorticoids, impairs the stratum corneum, and thus the barrier function.
Sudden and large changes in humidity change hydration of the stratum corneum in a way that can allow entry of pathogenic microorganisms.

Moisturizing the skin


The ability of the skin to maintain water is primarily due to the stratum corneum and is critical to maintaining healthy skin. Lipids arranged in a gradient and in an organized way between cells of the stratum corneum are a barrier to transepidermal water loss.


Skin color


The amount and distribution of melanin pigment in the epidermis is the main reason for skin color change in Homo sapiens. Melanin can be found in small melanosomes, particles formed in melanocytes, from where they are transferred to surrounding keratinocytes. The size, number, and distribution of melanosomes differ among racial groups, but although the number of melanocytes may vary between different areas of the body, their number remains the same in individual areas of the body in all humans. In melanosomes in white and Asian skin, they are packed in “aggregates”, but in the black skin, they are larger and arranged more evenly. The number of melanosomes in keratinocytes increases with exposure to UV radiation, while their distribution remains largely unchanged.

Paronychia symptoms & Causes

paronychia is an infection of the skin around nails. Bacteria or a type of yeast called Candida usually cause this infection. Bacteria and yeasts can even combine into one infection. Depending on the cause of the infection, anemia may appear slowly and persist for weeks or appear suddenly and last for only one or two days. Symptoms of paronychia are easy to detect and can usually be easily and effectively treated with little or no damage to the skin or nails. Your infection can become serious and even cause partial or total loss of your nails if left untreated.

Paronychia symptoms


Paronychia symptoms and chronic obliterate are very similar. They are largely distinguished from each other by the speed and duration of the infection. Chronic infections appear slowly and last for many weeks.

Acute infections develop quickly and do not last long. Both infections can have the following symptoms: redness of the skin around the nail the sensitivity of the skin around the nail pushers filled with oil changes in the shape, color or texture of the nails ripping off the nail.



Causes of paronychia


There are many causes of acute and chronic obliterate. The cause of each of them are bacteria, Candida yeast or a combination of these two factors.


Acute nausea


The bacterial factor introduced into the area around the nail for some type of injury usually causes acute infection. It may be biting or collecting nails or braces, piercing with manicurist tools, over aggressively pushing skins and other similar injuries.


Chronic nausea

The main factor of infection of chronic barefoot is Candida yeast, but it can also be bacteria. Because yeasts grow well in humid environments, this infection is often caused by too frequent feet or hands in the water. An important role is also played by chronic inflammation.

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Cuticle function & Mycology

In human anatomy, the “epidermis” may refer to several structures, but it is used in colloquial language, and even by doctors, when talking with patients to refer to the thickened skin surrounding nails and nails of the feet (eponychium) and refer to the external part of the hair, consisting of dead cells.  It can also be used as a synonym of the epidermis of the outer layer of the skin and the surface layer of overlapping cells covering the hair shaft (cuticula pili), which closes the hair in its follicle.

Cuticle function

The main structural components of plant skins are the unique cutin and/or cutan polymers impregnated with wax. Plant skins act as barriers of permeability to water and water-soluble materials.


In Cuticle function, the skin protects both the plant surfaces from getting wet and prevents the plants from drying out. Xerophytic plants, such as cactus, have very thick skins that help them survive in a dry climate. Plants that live in a sea spray may also have thicker shells that protect them from the toxic effects of salt.


Some plants especially adapted to live in a moist or aqueous environment, have extreme resistance to wetting. A well-known example is Sacred Lotus. This adaptation is not only a physical and chemical effect of the wax coating but depends to a large extent on the microscopic shape of the surface.


When the hydrophobic surface is sculpted into microscopic, regular, elevated areas, sometimes in fractal patterns, too high and too close to each other so that the surface tension of the liquid allows any flow into the space between the plateaus, then the contact area between the liquid and solid surfaces can be reduced to a small fraction of what a continuous surface can allow. The result is a significant wetting of the surface.



Mycology Cuticle


“Peel” is one term used in reference to the outer layer of the basidiocarp tissue of the fungus or “fruit”. The alternative term “pileipellis”, Latin “skin” “cap” (which means “mushroom”)  may be technically preferred, but it may be too cumbersome for widespread use. This is the part removed during the “peeling” of the mushrooms.


On the other hand, some morphological terms in mycology make smaller distinctions, such as those described in the article on the topic of “pileipellis”. Irrespective of this, the bristle (or “skin”) differs from the trama, the internal meaty tissue of the fungus or similar fruiting body, and also from the tissue layer of spores, hymen.[post_grid id=”473″]

keratin functions & fibrous structural proteins

Keratin is a protein inside cells. It occurs in many types of cells but is very important for epithelial cells that form the skin. Keratin is a type of filamentous protein, called indirect filament. These proteins form long strands inside the cell, hence the name of the fiber. The fibers anchor the cells to each other, which prevents the cells from detaching.

keratin functions


Keratin has two main functions in the skin:

1. To keep skin cells together, creating a barrier

2. To create the outermost layer of our skin that protects us from the environment.

To create a barrier, epithelial cells anchor together through proteins called desmosomes. Two epithelial cells stand next to each other and connect using desmosomes. Desmosomes are like glue holding two cells together. Inside the cell, there are keratin fibers that support desmosomes in the cell. Without keratin fibers, desmosomes will simply pull the cell membrane from the inside. Keratin anchors desmosomes to the cell, and desmosomes anchor cells to each other. See the desmosome connector? The cells combine with each other, and long fibers in combination are keratin proteins.

 Other functions

For example, murine thymic epithelial cells (TEC) are known to react with antibodies to keratin 5, keratin 8 and keratin 14. These antibodies are used as fluorescent markers to distinguish between TEC subsets in thymic genetic studies.


α-keratin is present in all vertebrates. They form hair (including wool), stratum corneum, horns, nails, claws and hooves of mammals and mucous membranes.


harder β-keratin are found only in the European region, that is, in all live reptiles and birds. They find in nails, scales, and claws of reptiles, some reptile shells (Testudines, such as turtle, tortoise, terrapin) and in bird feathers, beaks and claws. However, beta-keratin also have beta sheets.) 

In addition, whalebone whale feeding panels are made of keratin.

Keratin is polymers of type I and type II intermediate fibers that have only been found in the genomes of chords (vertebrates, Amphioxus, urochordates). Nematodes and many other animals without chords seem to have only indirect type VI, lamina fibers, which have a long rod domain (compared to the short domain of rods for keratin).[post_grid id=”473″]

Sesamoid bones function & Structure

The sesamoid bone is a bone embedded in the tendon or muscle. Derived from the Latin word sesamum (“sesame seed”), due to the small size of most of the sesame. Often, these bones arise in response to tension or may be present as a normal variant. The cap is the largest sesamoid bone in the body. Sesamoids act as pulleys, providing a smooth surface for tendons to slip, increasing the tendons’ ability to transfer muscle strength. Read below Sesamoid bones function.


Sesamoid bones function


One or both of the sesame-bone bones under the first metatarsophalangeal (big toe) can be multi-part – in two or three parts (mainly two-part – in two parts). (See the x-ray picture of the foot on the right.)
Fabella is a small sesamoid bone found in some mammals embedded in the side tendon of the gastrocnemius muscle behind the lateral femoral condyle. It is a variant of normal anatomy and occurs in people in 10% to 30% of people. Fabella can also be multipartite or bipartite. 


In Sesamoid bones function, Cyamella is a small sesamoid bone, which embeds in the hamstrings of the popliteal muscle. This is a variant of normal anatomy. It rarely sees in humans but is more often describes in other primates and some other animals.



sesamoid bones Structure


 The knee – patella (within the tendon of the quadriceps muscle). It is the largest sesamoidal bone.
In hand – two sesame bones are commonly found in the distal parts of the first metacarpal bone (within the tendons of adductor pollicis and flexor pollicis brevis).

The distal parts of the second metacarpal bone, the carpus bone is also common.
In the wrist – the worm of the wrist is the mammary bone (in the tendon of the elbow flexor). It begins to cure in children aged 9-12. The foot – the first metatarsal bone usually has two sesame bones in combination with the big toe (both within the hallucis brevis flexor tendon). One is on the side of the first metatarsal and the other is on the medial side. In some people, only one sesamoid is on the first metatarsal bone.



The neck – Although the hyoid bone is free floating, it is not technically a sesamoid bone. All sesame bones form directly with the connective tissue found in the tendons and ligaments. In contrast, the hyoid bone form with a cartilaginous precursor, like most other bones in the body.
The ear – the luscious process incus is the bone at first and is therefore considered the fourth ankle of the middle ear.

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