How to pass kidney stones fast at home

Drinking lots of fluids is a vital part of eliminating kidney stones and preventing the formation of new stones. The liquid not only removes toxins but also helps move stones and sand through the urinary tract.


The Water alone may be sufficient to do the trick, adding certain ingredients can be beneficial. Be sure to drink an 8-ounce glass of water immediately after drinking any flavored remedy. This can help move the ingredients through your system.


Talk to your doctor before starting any of the home remedies listed below.  If you are pregnant or breastfeeding, avoid using any remedy. Your doctor can determine if a juice can cause side effects for you or your baby.



 Drinking water

When passing a stone, increasing water consumption can help speed up the process. Fight for 12 glasses of water per day instead of the usual 8. Once the stone passes, you should continue drinking 8 to 12 glasses of water per day.


Dehydration is one of the main risk factors for kidney stones, and the last thing you want is for them to form more. Pay attention to the color of your urine. It must be a very light pale yellow. Dark yellow urine is a sign of dehydration.


how to pass kidney stones fast at home
how to pass kidney stones fast at home

lemon juice

You can add freshly squeezed lemons to your water as often as you want. Lemons carry citrate, which is a chemical that terminates calcium stones from forming. Citrate can also break small stones, which allows them to pass more easily.


It would take a lot of lemons to achieve a great effect, but some may help a little. Lemon juice has many other health benefits. For example, it helps to inhibit the growth of bacteria.



 basil juice

Basil contains acetic acid, which helps break down kidney stones and reduce pain. It is also full of nutrients. This remedy has traditionally been used for digestive and inflammatory disorders. There are antioxidants and anti-inflammatory agents in basil juice, and it can be useful for maintaining kidney health.




how to pass kidney stones fast at home

Apple cider vinegar

Apple cider vinegar contains acetic acid. Acetic acid helps dissolve kidney stones. In addition to rinsing the kidneys, apple cider vinegar can help relieve pain caused by stones. There are many other health benefits of apple cider vinegar.


To obtain these benefits, add 2 tablespoons of apple cider vinegar to 6 to 8 ounces of purified water. Drink this mixture throughout the day. You should not consume more than an 8-ounce glass of this mixture per day. You can also use it directly in salads or add it to your favorite salad dressing.


If ingested in large quantities, apple cider vinegar can lead to low levels of potassium and osteoporosis. People with diabetes should be careful when drinking this mixture. Carefully monitor your blood sugar levels throughout the day.




how to pass kidney stones fast at home

Dandelion root juice

Dandelion root is a tonic for the kidneys that stimulates the production of bile. It is believed that this helps eliminate waste, increases urine output and improves digestion. Dandelions have vitamins (A, B, C, D) and minerals such as potassium, iron, and zinc.


You can make fresh dandelion juice or buy it as tea. If you make it fresh, you can also add orange peel, ginger, and apple to taste. Drink 3 to 4 cups throughout the day.


Wheatgrass juice

Wheatgrass is full of many nutrients and has long been used to improve health. Wheatgrass increases the flow of urine to help pass the stones. It also contains vital nutrients that help clean the kidneys. You can drink 2 to 8 ounces of wheatgrass juice per day. To prevent side effects, start with the least amount possible and gradually increase to 8 ounces.


If fresh wheatgrass juice is not available, you can take powdered wheatgrass supplements as directed. Taking wheatgrass on an empty stomach can reduce your risk of nausea. In some cases, it can cause loss of appetite and constipation.



Horsetail juice

Horsetail has been used to increase the flow of urine to help eliminate kidney stones and can relieve swelling and inflammation. It also has antibacterial and antioxidant properties that help urinary health in general.


You should not use horsetail for more than six weeks at a time. There are dangers of seizures, decreased levels of B vitamins and loss of potassium.


You should not use horsetail if you take lithium, diuretics or heart medications such as digoxin. Horsetail is not recommended for children and pregnant or breastfeeding women. Horsetail contains nicotine and should not be taken if you are using a nicotine patch or trying to quit smoking.

Although it can be uncomfortable, you may have a kidney stone on your own.

You can take over-the-counter pain relievers to lessen the pain you may be experiencing. These include acetaminophen (Tylenol), ibuprofen (Advil) or naproxen (Aleve). Make sure to continue the treatment until the stone passes and do not drink alcohol.


Once you pass a kidney stone, you may want to save it to your doctor for analysis. To save the stone, you need to force your urine. Your doctor can determine what type of stone it is and help develop a specific prevention plan.


You can add these remedies to your usual regimen and continue to use them after the stone has passed. This can help prevent more stones from forming. But be sure to talk to your doctor before taking medications or herbs. Herbs are not regulated by the FDA for quality and purity, so research your options and sources of purchase.

Important facts of circulatory system

The circulatory system includes the heart, blood vessels, and blood, is vital to fight diseases and maintain homeostasis (adequate temperature and pH balance). The main function of the system is to transport blood, nutrients, gases, and hormones to and from the cells throughout the body.



Circulatory system facts

The circulatory system is extremely long.

If I had to place all the arteries, capillaries and veins in an adult, from end to end, they would extend around 60,000 miles (100,000 kilometers). Moreover, the capillaries, which are the smallest blood vessels, would make up approximately 80 percent of this length.


In comparison, the circumference of the Earth is approximately 25,000 miles (40,000 km). That means that a person’s blood vessels could surround the planet approximately 2.5 times!


circulatory system facts
circulatory system facts


Red blood cells must pass through blood vessels

The capillaries are small, with an average of approximately 8 microns (1/3000 inch) in diameter, or approximately one-tenth the diameter of a human hair. The red blood cells are approximately the same size as the capillaries through which they travel, so these cells must move in single file lines.

However, some capillaries have a slightly smaller diameter than blood cells, forcing cells to distort their ways to pass through.



Large bodies have a slower heart rate

Throughout the animal kingdom, the heart rate is inversely related to body size: in general, the larger the animal, the slower the resting heart rate. An adult human has an average resting heart rate of approximately 75 beats per minute, the same speed as an adult sheep.


But the heart of a blue whale is about the size of a compact car, and only beats five times per minute. A shrew, on the other hand, has a heart rate of approximately 1,000 beats per minute.



The heart does not need a body

In a particularly memorable scene in the 1984 film, “Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom,” a man tears the still-beating heart of another man. While easily removing a person’s heart with a bare hand is a science fiction thing, the heart can still beat after being removed from the body.


This mysterious pulsation occurs because the heart generates its own electrical impulses, which make it beat. As long as the heart continues to receive oxygen, it will continue to function, even if it is separated from the rest of the body.


circulatory system facts
circulatory system facts


Red blood cells are special

Unlike most other cells in the body, red blood cells have no nuclei. Lacking this large internal structure, each red blood cell has more space to transport the oxygen that the body needs. But without a nucleus, cells cannot divide or synthesize new cellular components.


After circulating inside the body for approximately 120 days, a red blood cell will die from aging or damage. But don’t worry, your bone marrow constantly makes new red blood cells to replace those that perish.



The stress can really “break your heart”

A condition called stress cardiomyopathy involves a sudden and temporary weakening of the heart muscle (the myocardium). This results in symptoms similar to those of a heart attack, such as chest pain, shortness of breath and pain in the arms.


The disorder is also basically known as “broken heart syndrome” because it can be caused by an emotionally stressful event, such as the death of a loved one or a divorce, rupture or physical separation of a loved one.



Human blood comes in different colors, but not in blue.

The oxygen-rich blood that flows through the arteries and capillaries is bright red. After delivering your oxygen to your body tissues, your blood turns a dark red color as it runs back to your heart through your veins.


Although veins sometimes look blue through your skin, it is not because your blood is blue. The deceptive color of your veins is due to the way in which different wavelengths of light penetrate your skin, are absorbed and reflected in your eyes, that is, only high energy light (blue) can reach the veins and back.


But that does not mean that the blood is never blue. The blood of many mollusks and few arthropods lacks the hemoglobin that gives human blood its redness, and instead contains the hemocyanin protein. This causes the blood of these animals to turn dark blue when it is oxygenated.



Living in space affects the circulatory system.

Here on Earth, a person’s blood tends to accumulate in the legs due to gravity (the veins in the legs have valves that help maintain blood flow from the legs to the heart).


Things are different in space. Instead, blood builds up in the chest and head (a phenomenon called fluid change), which causes astronauts to have a congested nose, headaches and swollen faces. This change in the fluid also causes the heart to enlarge so that it can handle the increased blood flow in the area surrounding the organ.


Even though the body has the same amount of fluid as before, the brain and other body systems interpret the fluid change as a sudden increase in the general fluid. In response, the body uses several different processes to get rid of excess fluid, resulting in a general reduction in the volume of circulating blood.

How Palliative and Hospice Care Achieve Holistic Healthcare

Illnesses do not only weaken the body—but they also weaken one’s mind and morale. This is why the healthcare team aims to provide holistic treatment as much as possible. While curative treatment is of major importance, palliative and hospice care are facets of healthcare that should be given when needed. 



Defining Wellness

Personal health goes beyond the physical body. To achieve optimal wellness, a person should tap into the five main aspects of health. These include physical, emotional, spiritual, intellectual, and social. 


To be physically healthy, it’s important to stay active, eat a balanced meal, and get eight hours of sleep every night. To tap into the other health aspects, it’s advisable to learn how to manage stress. One should also keep a positive attitude despite the existence of problems. 

The latter is what palliative and hospice care aim to achieve. 



Improving the Quality of Life 

Serious illnesses—like cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or Parkinson’s—exhibit symptoms and stress that add on to a patient’s suffering. These symptoms—pain, shortness of breath, fatigue, and depression—can cause distress and psychologically affect a person. One may even lose morale and the will to live due to their condition. 


Palliative care helps patients gain the strength and motivation to go on with daily life. Health workers aim to relieve pain and other symptoms that cause discomfort by giving basic medical treatment. This includes administering the necessary drugs to treat or control the symptoms. 


More importantly, palliative care keeps one’s psychological and spiritual aspects healthy. Health workers serve as a support system that helps patients and their families to cope with the illness. By talking and listening, the palliative care team will deeply explore a patient’s goals. This allows them to provide a more personalized treatment. 



End-of-Life Treatment 

In some cases, critical illnesses may reject medications. When a patient’s chances of survival are limited to six months or less, doctors will suggest getting hospice care. Like palliative care, hospice care aims to relieve discomfort rather than treating the illness. But unlike palliative care, all curative treatment stops when a patient is receiving hospice. 


For example, a person with lung cancer may be given oxygen through an oxygen sensor to relieve shortness of breath. However, doctors will stop delivering medications to treat cancer. 


The hospice team works with doctors, nurses, and social workers in delivering the best end-of-life care possible. It aims to deliver care that meets the unique needs of a patient. 


Patients with life-limiting conditions often want the choice of how they are going to spend the rest of their lives. And no one should spend it suffering and restrained by their symptoms. With palliative and hospice care, patients will be able to receive physical and emotional comfort. Meanwhile, their families will be able to receive support as they go through their own personal suffering as well. The goal is for everyone to enjoy living their lives to the fullest—free from the bonds of disease. 


Know more about how palliative and hospice care differ from each other through this interesting infographic below. 


written by:  Tara Desquitado

Types of capillaries and their functions

The walls of the capillaries are so thin that the molecules can diffuse through the walls of the capillaries to the membranes of the cells that surround the capillaries.


The pulmonary capillaries allow oxygen to diffuse into the blood, while carbon dioxide is able to diffuse outward into the lungs. The arteries and veins have thick walls that do not allow the cells or molecules of the blood to spread in the body cavities,

The capillaries

Capillaries are very small blood vessels, so small that a single red blood cell can barely pass through them. They help to connect your arteries and veins, in addition to facilitating the exchange of certain elements between the blood and the tissues.


 The tissues are very active, such as muscles, liver, and kidneys, have a large number of capillaries. Metabolically less active tissues, like certain types of connective tissue, do not have as many.



Types of capillaries

Continuous capillaries

These are the most common types of capillaries. They contain small gaps between their endothelial cells that allow the passage of things like gases, water, sugar (glucose) and some hormones. However, continuous capillaries in the brain are an exception.


These capillaries are part of the blood-brain barrier. It helps protect your brain by allowing only the most essential nutrients to cross. That is why the continuous capillaries in this area do not have spaces between the endothelial cells, and the surrounding basement membrane is also thicker.



Types of capillaries


Fenestrated capillaries

Fenestrated capillaries are more “leaky” than continuous capillaries. They contain small pores, in addition to small gaps between the cells, in their walls that allow the exchange of larger molecules. This type of capillary is found in areas that require a lot of exchange between blood and tissues.


Examples of these areas include The small intestine, where nutrients absorb from food. The kidneys, where the waste products filtered from the blood.

Sinusoid capillaries

These are the rarest and “most important” capillaries. Sinusoid capillaries allow the exchange of large molecules, including cells. They can do this because they have many larger holes in their capillary wall, in addition to pores and small holes. The surrounding basement membrane is also imperfect with openings in many locations.


These types of capillaries are found in certain tissues, including those in your liver, spleen, and bone marrow. For example, in your bone marrow, these capillaries allow newly produced blood cells to enter the bloodstream and begin to circulate.



What are the functions of the capillaries?

The capillaries connect the arterial system, which includes the blood vessels that carry blood from your heart to your venous system. Your venous system includes the blood vessels that carry blood back to your heart.


The exchange of oxygen, nutrients, and waste between the blood and tissues also occurs in their capillaries. This happens through two processes:


Passive diffusion, This is the movement of a substance from an area of ​​greater concentration to an area of ​​lower concentration.

Pinocytosis, This refers to the process through which the cells in your body take small molecules, such as fats and proteins.


The walls of the capillaries are formed by a layer of thin cells. It called the endothelium that is surrounded by another thin layer called the basement membrane.


Its one-layer endothelial composition, which varies between distinct types of capillaries, and the surrounding basement membrane makes capillaries a little more “leaky” than other types of blood vessels.


This allows oxygen and other molecules to reach the cells of your body more easily. In addition, the white blood cells of your immune system can use capillaries to reach sites of infection or other inflammatory damage.

Metatarsals function & Metatarsals Structure

  1. The metatarsals are part of the middle bone of the foot and have a tubular shape. They are called digits and start from the middle outside. The middle side is the same side as the big toe.



Metatarsals function

They know as the first metatarsus, the second metatarsus, the third metatarsus, the fourth metatarsus, and the fifth metatarsus. The first metatarsus is the strongest of the group.


These bones are between the fingertips and the tarsal bones. The base of each bone moves with at least one of the tarsal bones in which the tarsometatarsal pond is located. The metatarsal bones connect to the bones of the fingers or phalanges, on the ankle of the finger or the metatarsophalangeal joint.


Metatarsals function



The metatarsus has a convex shape (arch up), they are long bones and give the foot a bow. They work with connective tissues, ligaments, and tendons to ensure the movement of the foot.



Metatarsals Structure

The five metatarsals are dorsal convex long bones consisting of the body because of the base (proximal) and the head (distal).  The body has the shape of a prism, narrows gradually from the tarsus to the phalanx and curve longitudinally so that it is concave below, slightly convex above.


Metatarsals function


The hind limb or the base like as wedge-shape articulates proximal to the tarsal bones, and on the sides with adjacent metatarsal bones: its dorsal and plantar surfaces are rough to attach the ligaments. The head or distal limb has a convex articular surface, oblong from the top down and extending further below than above.


Its sides are flattened, and each of them has depression, crowned with tuberculosis, and ligamental ligature. Its plantar surface groove in the backward direction for the passage of flexor tendons and marked on both sides by a continuous joint with the final joint surface.


During growth, the growth plates place distally on the metatarsus, with the exception of the first metatarsal bone, where it is proximal. However, it is quite common to have an additional growth plate on the distal first metatarsus.

Phalanges function and Types of Proximal Phalanges

The type of bones that make up the skeleton of digits. The fingers of the body are known primarily as the bones of the phalanges. The human body has a total of fifty-six phalanges, with three phalanges for each finger and toe, except for two phalanges for the thumb and large toes.


The fingers are usually connected to each other on hinged interphalangeal joints that serve to extend. In many cases, the phalangeal bones are connected to each other.



The Phalanges function

Most Phalanges function is made using digits. These are flexible due to the structure of the phalanges in the way they are – whether by creating tools, grasping things, or creating things that facilitate human love in the long run. The sticks support the basic structure of numbers, creating a closely related structure for the smooth function of the engine and the precision of the numbers.


They are considered “contractors” of the task to which our brain directs them. This is the reason why they are considered to be of paramount importance to the evolutionary process of hominids.


Phalanges function


Types of Proximal Phalanges

These are the original bones of the phalanges because it connects the structure forming a number with the limb bones. The shape of the proximal phalanges in humans is wide and has a concave surface close to the hand. It connects the base of the limb with the metacarpophalangeal joint. It is easier to move around the claws and ankles.



Intermediate fingers

As the name suggests, these types of phalanges have an intermediate location and size compared to other phalange bones. They are also not present in every digit. For example, intermediate fingers are not found in the thumbs and big toes, hence it is said that their digital formula is 2. Their position is mainly between proximal and distal phalanges because it is connected to two interphalangeal joints.



Sticks Origin

Because the fingers are an integral part of our skeletal system, they are present in the body with the mesodermal origin and live mainly in nature. The baby has about three hundred and five bones, which have been reduced to only two hundred and six in adulthood because of connections and attachments that arise during growth, from which the fingers are never connected after birth, so they do not reduce their number.



The importance of phalanx phalanges

Normal accidents or injuries that can cause temporary or permanent impairment in these areas. Common injuries of proximal phalanges include fractures associated with joining limbs or moving joint joints. They are most often treated with a plaster Paris bandage in order to obtain stability and restore the original state of bone structures and connections and are treated with screws where it is necessary.


The usual screw-in operations involve the use of anesthetics and painkillers to reduce pain in the damaged area. The area is usually suspended for immobilization until the original alignment of the said bone is fully restored.

Flexor digitorum profundus and their functions, structure

The flexor digitorum profundus is a muscle of the arm of humans that flexes the fingers (also known as digits). It considers an external hand muscle that is running on the hand while the abdominal muscle place in the forearm. Together with the deep layer of ventral aqueduct muscles.  The muscle is called from the Latin, meaning “deep bender of the fingers.



flexor digitorum profundus functions

flexor digitorum profundus is a flexor of the wrist (mid carpal), metacarpophalangeal and interphalangeal joints. The lumbricals of hand, the essential muscles of the hand, attach to the tendon of the profundus bent digitorum. Therefore, flexural muscle use to assist lumbrical muscles in their function as extensors of interphalangeal joints.

As the lumbrical muscles emanating from the palm side of the hand and attach to the back aponeurosis. The force transfer from the flexor muscle to the fingers like as flex the metacarpophalangeal joints.


flexor digitorum profundus


The voltage generated by the profundus digitorum bent over the distal joints is more determined by the hand position. The flexibility of the wrist causes muscle contraction at this point, thus reducing the tension that can be produced distally. Fingers cannot be fully flexed if the wrist is completely flexible.



flexor digitorum profundus structure

Flexible profundus digitorum that originates from 3/4 top of the medial front surfaces of the beard, interosseous membrane and deep fascia of the forearm.  Along with the dendrobium bent the area, it has long tendons that run along the arm through the carpal tunnel and attach to the thin side of the changing of the fingers.


Flexible digitorum profundus lies deep on the superficial, but it distinguishes more distally. Therefore, the tendons of the profundus go through the tendons of the superficial and eventually attach the distal phalanx. This is a perforation muscle. The joints of the hand arise from the technical side of the tendons.



Supply of nerves

flexor digitorum profundus is a composite muscle innervate from nerve interosseous front nerves and ulnar. The medial aspect of the muscle (flexing the fourth and fifth digits)  which provide by the ulnar nerve (C8, T1).


The lateral aspect (which flexes the number 2 and 3) innervate from the median nerve especially the interosseous front branch (C8, T1).
This is one of the two flexor muscles that does not supply exclusively from the median.



 Case study flexor digitorum profundus

A 30-year-old male, right-handed, was referred to a hand clinic because of an injury to his left ring finger at the level of the distal phalangeal area. This injury had occurred several days before during a training session in his karate class. The patient did not experience any pain or notice the injury at the time of the training session.

Only later, in the locker room, did he feel pain at the level of the distal joint. At first, he was made to believe that it was a mild sprain and decided not to seek medical attention until two days after the injury when the pain and inflammation had not diminished.


In the evaluation, the patient experienced pain in the DIP joint of his left ring finger, which was neurovascularly intact. A painful eminence of the body was palpable on the volar side of the distal phalanx, and there was no active flexion of the DIP joint.


The radiographs revealed a comminuted fracture of the base of the distal phalanx, with the displacement of the volar fragment at the approximate level of the A4 pulley. The need for surgery, risks and complications and convalescence was discussed, and surgery was scheduled two days later.

Carpal bones mnemonic and major functions

The bones of the carpal are eight small bones that form the wrist and that joins the hand with the forearm. In human anatomy, the main role of the carpal bone is to facilitate effective hand positioning.


In the tetrapods, the carpal is the only cluster of bones in the wrist between the radius and the elbow. The bones of the carpal do not belong to individual fingers, while the bones of the wrist. The carpal bones allow the wrist to move and rotate vertically.



Carpal bones mnemonic functions

There are four groups of ligaments in the wrist area:

Proper wrist ligaments that connect the ulna and radius of the wrist: ulnar and radial collateral ligaments; hand-dorsal palmar dorsal ligaments; and elbow ligaments palmar.


Ligaments of the intervertebral joints that connect the bones of the wrist: radial ligament of the wrist; dorsal, palmar and interosseous ligaments; and the ligaments of pisohamate.


carpal bones mnemonic
Carpal bones mnemonic

Ligaments of the wrist and metacarpal joints, which connect the wrist bones with the metacarpus bones: the ur between the patellar ligament and the palmar-dorsal ligaments.


Ligaments of the intervertebral joints that connect the metacarpal bones because of dorsal, and palmar metacarpal ligaments.



Eight wrist bones can be conceptually organized as two transverse rows or three longitudinal columns.

When considered as paired rows, each row forms an arc that is convex proximal and concave distal. On the palmar side, the wrist is concave and forms a wrist channel that is covered by the flexor retinaculum.


The proximal row (including scaphoid, lunacy, and triquetrum) connects to the radius and distal surfaces of the wrist, and therefore continuously adapts to these moving surfaces. In the proximal row, each wrist bone has little independent mobility.


For example, boat-likeness contributes to the stability of the metatarsus by articulating distally with the trapezoid and trapezium. In contrast, the distal order is stiffer when its transverse arch moves with the metacarpus.

Ulna functions & bone development, Structure

The elbow is one of two bones that give the forearm structure. The elbow is on the opposite side of the forearm from the thumb. It connects the humerus at its major end, forming the elbow joint and connects to the wrist bones of the hand at its smaller end. Along with the radius, the elbow allows the wrist to rotate.


The diameter of the ulna is 50% greater than the radius from 4 to 5 months. During adult life, when remodeling and resorption are completed, the diameter of the elbow becomes half the radius. The elbow bone is found and has a similar function both in humans and in four-legged animals such as dogs and cats.

In the event of a rupture of the ulna bone, it most often occurs in a place where the radius and elbow form a joint or where the ulna bone forms a joint with the wrist bones of the hand. Elbow fractures cause severe pain, difficulty in moving the joint, and even deformation of the arm if the fracture is complex.


More ulna functions

The humerus, on the right side of the elbow as a hinged joint with a crescent-like excision of the ulna. The radius, close the elbow as the pivot point, allows the radius to cross the ulnar in the pronation. In the ulna functions, distal radius, where it fits the elbow notch. Radius along its length through the interosseous membrane that forms the syndesmosis joint.


Development of ulna

The elbow bone is ossified from three centers: one for the body, the tip of the wrist and the tip of the elbow, near the top of the olecranon. The ossification begins near the center of the ulnar, about the eighth week of fetal life, and soon extends over most of the bones.


After birth, the ends are cartilaginous. More or less in the fourth year, the center appears in the middle of the head and soon extends to the process of appendicitis of the ulna. Around the tenth year, a center appears in the olecranon near its end, the main part of which is the extension of the body. The upper base connects to the body around the sixteenth, lower around the twentieth year.

Structure of ulna

The elbow long bone finds in the forearm that extends from the elbow to the smallest finger, and when it is in the anatomical position, is located on the middle side of the forearm. It is wider near the elbow and narrows as it approaches the wrist.

Ulna functions

The elbow bone is located near the elbow in the bone process, and an olecranon process resembling a hook that fits the bottom of the humerus olecranon. This prevents overstressing and creates a hinged connection with the humerus. There is also a radial excision for the head of the ray and the lumpiness of the nodule to which the muscles attach.

Dermis function & Dermal papillae

NoThe dermis or corium is a layer of skin between the epidermis (with which it forms the skin) and the subcutaneous tissue, which consists mainly of dense irregular connective tissue and absorbs the body from stress and tension. It is divided into two layers, the surface area adjacent to the epidermis is called the papillary region and the deeper area known as reticulate skin. The dermis is closely connected to the epidermis through the basal membrane. The structural components of the dermis are collagen, elastic fibers and a matrix in the form of fibers. Read below dermis function.



Dermis function


Papillary dermis


The papillary skin is the highest layer of the dermis. Intertwined with the backs of the epidermis and consists of small and loosely arranged collagen fibers. The papillary region consists of loose connective tissue. The name comes from its finger-like projections called warts that extend towards the epidermis and contain either the terminal capillary networks or the tactile Meissner body.


Reticulate skin


Reticulated skin is the lower layer of the dermis, located under the papillary skin, composed of dense, irregular connective tissue with densely packed collagen fibers. This is the main location for flexible skin fibers. 


The mesh region is usually much thicker than the above-lying papillary skin. It owes its name to the dense concentration of collagen, elastic and mesh fibers that intertwine in it. These protein fibers give the dermis proper strength, stretchability and elasticity. Within the reticulate, there are roots of the hair, sebaceous glands, sweat glands, receptors, nails, and blood vessels. The orientation of collagen fibers in the reticular skin forms tension lines called Langer’s lines, which have some significance in surgery and wound healing.



Dermal papillae


The dermal papillae (DP) (singular papilla, diminutive of Latin papula, ‘pimple’) are small, nipple-like extensions (or interdigitations) of the dermis into the epidermis. At the surface of hands and feet, they appear as epidermal or papillary ridges (colloquially known as fingerprints).


Blood cells in the dermal papillae nourish all hair follicles and bring oxygen to the layers of epidermal cells. The pattern of the ridges. Remain functions They throughout throughout throughout throughout throughout, throughout, throughout, throughout, throughout, throughout.


The dermal papillae are part of the uppermost layer of the dermis, the papillary dermis, and the ridges of the dermis and epidermis. Because the main function of the dermis is to support the epidermis, this greatly increases the exchange of oxygen, nutrients, and waste products. Addiction, the increase in the surface of the dermal and epidermal layers of the junction between them. With age, the papillae tend to flatten and sometimes increase in number. 


Dermal papillae also play a pivotal role in hair formation, growth, and cycling.  In mucous membranes, the corresponding structures are dermal papillae are generally termed “connective tissue papillae”, which interdigitate with the rete pegs of the superficial epithelium.

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