blood vessels function & Additional features

Blood vessels function consist of arteries, arterioles, capillaries, veins, and veins. The vascular networks deliver blood to all tissues in a targeted and regulated manner. The arteries and veins consist of three layers of tissue.
The thick outer layer of the vessel (tunica adventitia or tunica external) is made of connective tissue.
The middle layer (the tunica medium) is thicker and contains more systolic tissue in the arteries than in the veins. It consists of circularly arranged elastic fibers, connective tissue, and smooth muscle cells.

The inner layer (tunica intima) is the thinnest layer, consisting of a single endothelial layer supported by the subendothelial layer. Capillaries consist of a single layer of endothelium and associated connective tissue. Read on more blood vessels function.



Blood vessels function

Blood vessels function carry nutrients and oxygen throughout the body and help in gas exchange.

Vessels are key elements of the systemic and pulmonary circulation that distribute blood throughout the body. There are three main types of blood vessels: arteries that carry blood from the heart, branching to smaller arterioles throughout the body and eventually forming a network of capillaries. The latter facilitates an efficient chemical exchange between tissue and blood. Capillaries, in turn, merge into veins, and then into larger veins responsible for restoring blood to the heart.


The arteries and veins consist of three different layers, while much smaller capillaries consist of one layer.


Tunica Intima

The inner layer (tunica intima) is the thinnest layer formed from a single continuous layer of endothelial cells and a supported subendothelial layer of connective tissue and support cells. In smaller arterioles or veins, this subendothelial layer consists of a single layer of cells, but it can be much thicker in larger vessels such as the aorta. The inner tunic is surrounded by a thin membrane composed of elastic fibers running parallel to the vessel. Capillaries consist only of a thin layer of the endothelium of cells with an associated thin layer of connective tissue.



Tunica Media

 This layer is much thicker in the arteries than in the veins. The fiber composition is also different. The veins contain less elastic fibers and function as a control of the caliber of the arteries. The key step in maintaining blood pressure.



Tunica Externa

The outermost layer is the outer tunic or roadside tunica, made entirely of connective fibers and surrounded by an external flexible blade that acts to anchor the vessels with the surrounding tissues. The external tunica is often thicker in the veins to prevent the collapse of the blood vessel and provide protection against damage because the veins can be superficially located.



Valve function

In blood vessels function, the main structural difference between arteries and veins is the presence of valves. In the arteries, blood is pumped under pressure from the heart, so the backflow cannot occur. However, the passage through the capillary network causes a decrease in blood pressure, which means that the flow of blood in the veins is possible. To counteract this, the veins incorporate numerous one-way valves that prevent backflow.



Key points (TAKEAWAYS)

The systemic and pulmonary circulation system effectively supplies oxygen to body tissues and removes metabolic products, such as carbon dioxide. Arterial blood (with the exception of the pulmonary artery) is highly saturated with oxygen and supplies oxygen to the tissues of the body. Venous blood (except the pulmonary vein) is deoxygenated and returns to the heart to pump it into the lungs for re-irradiation.


The immune cells move in the circulatory system and are capable of rapidly penetrating through the walls of blood vessels to sites of injury or infection. Blood vessels can increase or decrease the flow of blood near the surface of the body, increasing or decreasing the amount of heat lost as a means of regulating body temperature.



blood vessels function Key terms

In blood vessels function key terms, thermoregulation: maintaining a constant internal temperature of the body regardless of the ambient temperature
Blood plays many critical roles in the body: supplying nutrients and chemicals to tissues, removing waste and maintaining homeostasis and health. The circulatory system carries blood through the body to perform these activities, assisted by a vast network of blood vessels.



Gas transfer

The circulatory system can be divided into two parts, systemic and pulmonary. In the systemic circulatory system, highly oxidized blood (95-100%) is pumped from the left ventricle and into the body arteries. After reaching the capillary network, gas exchange between tissue and blood may occur, facilitated by the narrow walls of the capillaries. The capillaries merge into veins and then veins, transferring deoxygenated blood (~ 75%) back to the right atrium of the heart at the end of the systemic circulation.



A much smaller lung system reoxygenates the blood and facilitates the removal of carbon dioxide. After the heart leaves the right ventricle, blood passes through the pulmonary artery. The only artery in the body containing deoxygenated blood and into the capillary network of the lungs. The close connection of thin-walled vesicles with equally thin-walled capillaries allows for quick release of carbon dioxide and oxygen absorption. After leaving the lungs through the pulmonary vein, the only vein that carries oxygenated blood. The blood enters the left atrium. This completes the pulmonary circulation system.



Additional features & blood vessels function

In blood vessels function, blood vessels also facilitate rapid distribution and efficient transport of agents such as glucose, amino acids or lipids to tissues and removal of waste products for processing elsewhere, such as lactic acid into the liver or urea into the kidneys. In addition, the blood vessels are an ideal network for the surveillance and distribution of the immune system. Numerous white blood cells circulate around the body, sensing infection or injury.

Mechanically, blood vessels, especially those close to the skin, play a key role in thermoregulation. Blood vessels can swell to allow greater blood flow, allowing a greater loss of radiant heat. 

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Bone marrow and the immune system

what does bone marrow do Parents can learn about bone marrow and the immune system, preparing for a child’s blood transplant and bone marrow transplant (BMT).


main points

Bone marrow is a spongy tissue inside the bone that produces blood cells. The bone marrow produces red blood cells, platelets and white blood cells. Lymphocytes are produced in the bone marrow and play an important role in the body’s immune system. The bone marrow is the spongy tissue inside our bones. All bones in newborns have active bone marrow, which means that they produce new bone marrow cells. Until your child reaches a young adulthood, the bone marrow inside the bones of the hands, feet, arms and legs stops producing new bone marrow cells. In adults, active bone marrow is found in the bones of the spine, hip and shoulder, ribs, sternum and skull. However, the bone marrow in the spine and hip has the richest source of bone marrow cells.


what does bone marrow do

Our bone marrow produces blood cells, called red blood cells, blood platelets and white blood cells. Inside the bone marrow, blood cells start as young, immature cells called stem cells. When they develop, blood cells do not live in our bodies for a long time. That’s why our bone marrow keeps producing all three types of blood cells to keep us healthy.


 Oxygen and carbon dioxide attach to the iron in hemoglobin, allowing the blood cells to transport oxygen to the body. Red blood cells get rid of the carbon dioxide that leaves your body through the lungs when you exhale.

what does bone marrow do




Platelets are blood cells that help to clot blood (stick together) to stop bleeding in areas of the body that have been cut or wounded.The tiles form a scab that forms on a small piece.



what does bone marrow do in White blood cells function

White blood cells help the body fight infection. There are many different types of white blood cells that include: lymphocytes, neutrophils and monocytes. These white blood cells fight against attackers with bacteria, viruses or fungi to help destroy infection. Each of these cells differs in appearance. Eosinophils and basophils. These white blood cells react to allergens that can attack our bodies.


what does bone marrow do in Immune System

Our immune system protects the body against disease. It kills unwanted microorganisms such as bacteria and viruses that can attack our bodies.



How does our immune system fight infection?

When introduced into the marrow, lymphocytes enter the lymph nodes. Lymphocytes travel between each node via lymphatic channels. Lymphatic channels meet in large channels that empty into the blood vessels. Lymphocytes get into the blood through these channels. There are three main types of lymphocytes that play an important role in B cells in the immune system (B cells).

These cells come from the bone marrow. They form proteins called antibodies that attach to the surface of the microorganisms that cause infection. Basically, they have the shape of Y or T. Each type of antibody reacts to different microorganisms, adhering to molecules called antigens that are on the surface of the microorganism.

what does bone marrow do



It is the binding of the antibody and the antigen that causes B cells to grow and produce more antibodies that fight the infection. T-lymphocytes (T-cells) These cells mature in the thymus, which is a small organ in the upper chest, just after the sternum (sternum). T cells help B cells to produce antibodies against attacking bacteria, viruses or other microorganisms. In contrast to B cells, T cells absorb and destroy pathogens directly after binding to the antigen on the surface of the microorganism. Natural killer (NK) cells. This is a type of lymphocyte that directly attacks cells infected with the virus

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where is kidney pain felt

where is kidney pain felt  Renal pain and back pain can be difficult to distinguish, but kidney pain is usually deeper and higher in the back and under the ribs, while muscle pain with typical spinal damage tends to fall in the back. The causes of kidney pain are mainly urinary tract infections and kidney stones.



The hallmark of the stone blocking the ureter or the renal pelvis is the tearing, interrupted pain that radiates from the side to the groin or the inside of the thigh. Kidney colic caused by kidney stones often accompanies urgent urgency, anxiety, hematuria, sweating, nausea, and vomiting. It usually occurs in waves lasting from 20 to 60 minutes, caused by peristaltic spasms of the ureter, when trying to expel a stone.




An embryological connection between the urinary tract, sexual organs and the digestive tract is the basis for irradiation of gonadal pain, as well as nausea and vomiting, which are also common in urolithiasis.   

where is kidney pain felt



where is kidney pain felt Risk factors

Dehydration from the low liquid intake is the main factor in the formation of stones. Obesity is also a leading risk factor. High consumption of animal protein,  sodium, sugars, including honey, refined sugars, fructose and high fructose corn syrup,  oxalate, grapefruit juice, and apple juice may increase the risk of kidney stones. 



Kidney stones may be caused by a substantial metabolic condition, such as distal renal tubular acidosis, [18] Down’s disease, hyperparathyroidism, primary hyperoxaluria,  or renal spongy kidney. 3-20% of people forming kidney stones have a kidney-shaped kidney sponge. 


where is kidney pain felt with symptoms 

Symptoms may vary from person to person. Someone in the early stages of kidney disease may not feel bad or notice the symptoms that occur. When the kidneys do not filter properly, the waste accumulates in the blood and the body, a condition called azotemia. Very low levels of azotemia can cause little if any symptoms. If the disease progresses, the symptoms become noticeable (if the insufficiency causes symptoms enough). 



where is kidney pain felt
where is kidney pain felt





Symptoms of renal failure include

High levels of urea in the blood that can cause:
Vomiting or diarrhea (or both) that can lead to dehydration
Weight loss
Night urination
Frequent urination or in larger quantities than usual, with a pale urine
Rare urination or in smaller quantities than usual with dark urine




Blood in the urine

Pressure or difficulty passing urine
Unusual amounts of urination, usually in large quantities
Accumulation of phosphates in the blood, which sick kidneys can not filter out, can cause:
Bone damage


Nonunion in broken bones

The accumulation of potassium in the blood that the sick kidneys can not filter out (called hyperkalemia) can cause:
Abnormal heart rhythms
Muscle paralysis 
Failure of the kidneys to remove excess fluid can cause:
Swelling of the legs, ankles, feet, face or hands
Shortness of breath due to extra fluid in the lungs (may also be caused by anemia)
Polycystic kidney syndrome, which causes large, fluid-filled kidney cysts and sometimes liver, can cause:



Pain in the back or side

Healthy kidneys produce the hormone erythropoietin, which stimulates the bone marrow to produce red blood cells carrying oxygen. As a result, the blood carries less hemoglobin, a condition known as anemia. This can cause:


Feeling tired or weak
Problems with memory
Difficulty with concentration
Low blood pressure

This does not cause symptoms until there is significant kidney damage, after which the symptoms include:
Foamy or bubbly urine
Swelling of hands, feet, stomach or face
Other symptoms are:
Loss of appetite, bad taste in the mouth
Difficulties with sleeping
Darkening of the skin
Excess protein in the blood


If high doses of penicillin are used in people with renal insufficiency, seizures may occur Causes
Acute kidney injuryAcute kidney injury (previously known as acute renal failure) – or AKI – usually occurs when the blood supply to the kidneys is suddenly interrupted or when the kidneys are overloaded with toxins.  Heart bypass surgery is an example of one of these procedures.



Drug overdose

accidental or due to the chemical overload of drugs, such as antibiotics or chemotherapy, can also cause acute kidney damage. However, unlike chronic kidney disease, the kidneys can often recover from acute kidney damage, allowing the patient to return to a normal life. People suffering from acute kidney injury require supportive care until their kidneys recover and are often at an increased risk of developing future kidney failure. 





Among the random causes of kidney failure is a crush syndrome, when large amounts of toxins suddenly release in the bloodstream after a long compressed limb, suddenly releases from the pressure impeding the flow of blood through its tissues, causing ischemia. The resulting overload may lead to blockage and destruction of the kidneys. The particular, myoglobin, potassium, an phosphorus – which are products of rhabdomyolysis (damage to skeletal muscle damaged under ischemic conditions).


Chronic kidney disease

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has many causes. The most common causes of CKD are diabetes and long-lasting, uncontrolled hypertension.  Polycystic kidney syndrome is  CKD. Most people with polycystic kidney disease have a family history of the disease.

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