Basal ganglia are a group of neurons, which located deep in the cerebral hemispheres of the brain. Basal ganglia consist of the body layer (the main group of testicular nuclei) and associated nuclei.


The basal ganglia function are mainly involved in the processing of traffic-related information. They also process information about emotions, motivation and cognitive functions.


The main function of the ganglions is associated with a number of disorders that affect movement, including Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease and uncontrolled or slow movement (dystonia).



The basic function of Nuclei

Basal ganglia and related nuclei are characterized as one of the three types of nuclei.

Nuclei Cells


The input kernels receive signals from various sources in the brain. The output kernels send signals from the coil of the base to the hill.


The internal kernels transmit nerve signals and information between the input kernel and the output kernel.

The basal ganglia function receive information from the cortex and the thalamus via the input nuclei. The hill transmits information to the cerebral cortex.



The primary function of the Ganglia: striatum Corps

The layered body is the largest group of testicular basal ganglia. It consists of the caudate nucleus, the crust, the nucleus accumbens, and the pale knob.

The main body uses and stores neurotransmitter dopamine and participates in the brain’s reward circuit.


The belly tail has a header area that curves and expands to form an elongated body that is still narrowing on its tail. The tail of the caudal nucleus ends in the temporal lobe in the structure of the limbic system known as the amygdala.


He also deals with memory storage (unconscious and long-term), associative and procedural learning, inhibition of control, decision-making, and planning.

basal ganglia function
basal ganglia function



These largely rounded nuclei (one in each hemisphere) are located in the forebrain and together with the caudate nucleus form the dorsal layer.


Nucleus Accumbens

These paired nuclei (one in each hemisphere) are between the nucleus of the caudate nucleus and the crust. Together with the olfactory nodule (the sensory processing center in the olfactory cortex), the semi-nucleus forms the abdominal region of the layer.



basal ganglia function (Pallidus Globe)

These paired nuclei (one in each hemisphere) are located near the caudate and the crust.

It sends information from the basal ganglia to the thalamus. The internal segments of Globus pallidus send most of the results to the thalamus, via the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA).


GABA has an inhibitory effect on motor function. The outer Globus pallidus segments are internal nuclei that transmit information, inter alia, the core nucleus of the ganglia and the inner segments of the finger. Globus pallidus deals with the regulation of voluntary movement.


The nucleus of the hypothalamus:

These small paired testicles are a component of the diencephalon, located just below the hill. The hypothalamic nucleus plays an important role in the voluntary and involuntary movement.


He also deals with associative learning and limbic functions. The hypothalamic nuclei have connections to the limbic system through connections with the rim bend and nucleus accumbens.



basal ganglia function (Nigra Substantia)

This large mass of testes is located in the midbrain and is also a component of the brainstem. The black substance consists of pars compacta and pars substantia nigra.


The segment of the substantia nigra is one of the main inhibitory results of basal ganglia function and helps regulate eye movements. The compact segment consists of spontaneous nuclei that transmit information between input and output sources.


It mainly deals with motor control and coordination. Pars compacta cells contain colored dopamine-producing nerve cells.

These substantia nigra neurons have connections with the dorsal layer (caudate nucleus and shell) supplying the dopamine layer.


The black essence has many functions, including controlling voluntary movements, mood regulation, learning and activity associated with the reward circuit in the brain.



Basal ganglia Disorders

dysfunction of the basic ganglion structures causes several movement disorders.

Examples of such disorders include Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease, dystonia (involuntary muscle contractions), Tourette’s syndrome and multiple system atrophies (neurodegenerative disorder).


Basal ganglia function disorders are usually the result of damage to the deep brain structures of the basal ganglia.

This damage can be caused by factors such as head injury, drug overdose, carbon monoxide poisoning, tumors, heavy metal poisoning, stroke or liver disease.


People with nerve dysfunction may have difficulty in walking with uncontrolled or slow movement.

They can also show tremors, problems with speech control, muscle cramps and increased muscle tone. Treatment is specific to the causes of the disorder.