difference between Ram, ROM and hard disk memory

 The difference between ram and hard disk memory It often seems confusing, with overlapping terminology, you may not seem to know the difference.  the ram does not allow the storage of personal data.


It reads and writes data and will continue to save memory unless the system turns off. The hard disk is a predictable memory that allows the user to store and delete data; Your ability to store in it depends on its size.




Read-Only Memory (ROM)

Read-only memory (ROM) is a kind of storage medium that permanently stores data on personal computers (PCs) and other electronic devices. It contains the programming necessary to start the computer, which is necessary for starting up; performs large I/O tasks and stores programs or software instructions.


Because the ROM is read-only, it can not be changed; it is durable and non-volatile, which means that it retains its memory even after disconnecting the power supply. Whereas the random access memory (RAM) is unstable; is lost when the power is removed.

difference between ram and hard disk memory
difference between ram and hard disk memory

There are many ROM on the motherboard and several on the expansion boards. Chips are necessary for the basic input/output system (BIOS), boot, read and write on peripherals, basic data management, and software for basic processes for specific tools.



difference between ram and hard disk memory




difference between ram and hard disk memory
difference between ram and hard disk memory


When it comes to memory capacity, the hard disk starts where the RAM memory ends; this means that the size of the hard disk is always larger than the size of the RAM. Currently, the size of RAM varies from 256 MB to 32 GB.


The currently available hard disk size is from 500 GB to 8 TB. The hard disk is more similar to a machine that has different parts, such as a write module and reader, while the RAM is a smaller (silicon) circuit composed of circuits.



RAM memory does not allow connecting external RAM if RAM is not available. The hard disk allows you to add an external hard disk to improve disk space. You can also completely change it and add more capacity.


Connecting an external drive, when the hard disk stores more and more data, provides increased storage capacity without losing files or data.


The size of the hard disk you want to connect to the system, however, depends on the power necessary to run the computer with an additional storage location, as well as on the physical surface it will use.




One of the primary goals of RAM is to speed up your computer’s performance; it means that your system will run slower when its RAM memory is small (limited). However, the primary purpose of the hard disk is to store information, and having a hard disk with a smaller capacity may not affect the speed of the system.



Each time a task is executed, the CPU sends and receives program instructions and data to and from RAM. User data will be transferred to the hard disk as part of these operations.



The memory used during the operation comes from RAM because RAM is much faster than the hard disk. RAM is faster and data is transferred from the hard disk to RAM to ensure that the processor only deals with the fastest data access.


Additional RAM


median formula for grouped data

median formula for grouped data  The idea of grouped data can be illustrated by considering the following raw data set:

Table 1: Time taken (in seconds) by a group of students
answer a simple math question

20 25 24 33 13
26 8 19 31 11
16 21 17 11 34
14 15 21 18 17



The above data can be grouped to construct the frequency distribution in several ways. One of the methods is to use the intervals as a basis.

The smallest value in the above data is 8, and the largest is 34. The distance from 8 to 34 is divided into smaller sub-intervals (called class intervals). For each class interval, the amount of data belonging to this interval is counted. This number is called the frequency of this class interval. The results are summarized in the frequency table as follows:

Busy time (in seconds) Frequency

5 ≤ t <10 1
10 ≤ t <15 4
15 ≤ t <20 6
20 ≤ t <25 4
25 ≤ t <30 2
30 ≤ t <35 3

Table 2: Distribution of the frequency of time (in seconds) from the group of students to
answer a simple math question

Another method of grouping data is to use certain qualitative features instead of numerical intervals. For example, suppose that there are three types of students in the above example: 1) Below normal, if the response time is between 5 and 14 seconds, 2) normal if it is between 15 and 24 seconds, and 3) above normal if there is 25 seconds or more, then grouped data looks like this:

Below the standard 5
Normal 10
Above standard 5
Table 3: Frequency distribution of three types of students
Average grouped data
The respect of {\ display style {\ bar {x}}} {\ bar {x}} of the average population from which data is drawn can be calculated from grouped data as:

{\ display style {\ bar {x}} = {\ frac {\ sum {f \, x}} {\ sum {f}}}.} {\ bar {x}} = {\ frac {\ sum {f \, x}} {\ sum {f}}}.
In this formula, x is the midpoint of class intervals and f is the class frequency. It should be noted that the result will be different from the average sample of ungrouped data. The average for the grouped data in the above example can be calculated as follows:

Frequency of classes Frequency (f) Center point (x) f x
5 and above, below 10 1 7.5 7.5

10 ≤ t <15 4 12.5 50
15 ≤ t <20 6 17.5 105
20 ≤ t <25 4 22.5 90
25 ≤ t <30 2 27.5 55
30 ≤ t <35 3 32.5 97.5
TOTAL 20 405


So the average of the grouped data is

{\ displaystyle {\ bar {x}} = {\ frac {\ sum {f \, x}} {\ sum {f}}} = {\ frac {405} {20}} = 20.25} {\ bar { x}} = {\ frac {\ sum {f \, x}} {\ sum {f}}} = {\ frac {405} {20}} = 20.25

what is median in math

what is median in math  In the theory of probability and statistics, a median is a number. This number has the property that it divides the set of observed. The values into two equal halves so that half the value is below and half is above.


If there is a finite number of elements, the median is easy to find. Values should be placed on the list, from the lowest to the highest. If there is an odd number of values, the median is the one at position {\ display style (n + 1) / 2} {\ display style (n + 1) / 2}. For example, if there are 13 values, they can be divided into two groups of 6, with a median between, in position 7.


With an even number of values, because there is no one that divides all numbers into two, the median is defined as the average of two central elements. With 14 observations it would be the average of elements 7 and 8, which is their sum divided by 2.

what is median in math



The median list

Alternatively, the median list of an even number is sometimes defined as one of the two middle elements; the choice is either (a) always the smallest, (b) always the largest, or (c) randomly chosen between the two. This alternative definition has two important advantages. It guarantees that the median is always an element of the list (eg, the list of integers will never have a fractional median).



The guarantees that the median exists for data of ordinal value. The options (a) or (b) is taken, the median of the sample will be biased. Which is an undesirable property of the statistical estimate. Definition (c) does not have this disadvantage, but it is more difficult to do. It also has the disadvantage that the same list of values does not have a well-defined, deterministic median.




The distribution curve with the mode, median and average. The median is the center.
Median and average

The median and average differ in several ways. The average is in many cases a better measure. The many statistical tests can use the mean and standard deviation of two observations to compare them. The same comparison cannot be done with medians.

what is median in math





The median is more useful when the value variance is not important. We only need a central measure of value. The average of this set of numbers changes, but the median does not.


For example, a researcher can calculate the median survival of kidney transplant patients when half of the patients participate in his study died. The calculation of the average survival requires continuing the study and following all patients until their death.




what is median in math Example

Suppose you want to know how many jelly beans have the most people in the room. Let’s say there are five people in the room:

Person 1 (7 jellies), Person 2 (8 jellies), Person 3 (9 jellies), Person 4 (10 jellies), Person 5 (11 jellies)
To calculate the average, add the total number of jellies (45) and divide by the number of people (5): the average is 9 jelly beans per person.



To calculate the median, align the amount of jelly beans (7, 8, 9, 10, 11) and select the median number: the median is also 9 gels.
The results change significantly when you have a larger range of numbers. Imagine another group of five people:

Person 1 (8 jellies), Person 2 (8 jellies), Person 3 (9 jellies), Person 4 (10 jellies), Person 5 (50 jellies)
To calculate the average, add the total number of jellies (85) and divide by the number of people (5): the average is now 17 jelly beans per person.



To calculate the median, align the amount of jelly beans (8, 8, 9, 10, 50) and select the median number: the median still contains 9 jellies.
In the latter case, the average gives a poor understanding of how many jelly beans have the majority of people (10 or less). The median gives a better idea of the amount of jelly beans that most people have. However, if you would like to divide the amount of jelly evenly, you would use this measure. The median is basically the average number.

origin broadband router settings

1. Find the router’s IP address

origin broadband router settings   The IP address is a sequence of numbers – is common – it identifies your connection. To change its settings, you need to know what the router’s IP address is. There are many ways to find this.


Check the back of the router. Most have a sticker or card with all the information you need to log into the settings, including the IP address you need.


Or go to the Network and Sharing Center on your computer. Choose “Wireless network link” or “Local area connection” and then “Details”. Look for the “Default IPv4 Gateway” – the desired IP address is next to it.


Or connect the Ethernet cable and go to the command line. Enter “ipconfig” and press enter, and look for the number next to “Default gate”.



1. On a Mac: Go to System Preferences and select “Network”. Click the network to which you are connected in the left panel and the router’s IP address on the right.




2. Enter it in the browser

Open any web browser – Chrome, Internet Explorer, Firefox or Safari – and enter the address you found. He should move to the login screen.


3. Log in

Enter the username and password for the router. You can find it at the back of the router or in its user manual.


Login details do not work? Here’s what you can do.

Connect the Ethernet cable. Search for “network” in the Control Panel and select “View network connections” (in the Network and Sharing Center). Right, click on the Ethernet connection and choose “Properties”. Check that “Obtain an IP address automatically” and “Obtain DNS server automatically” is selected. Then try again.


Or reset the router back to the factory settings – you will probably need a paper clip or pushpin and put it in the “reset” hole. Then reconnect and try logging in again. However, this is the last resort – resetting the router will delete all settings that may have changed.
After successful login, you will have access to the page with all router settings.

When is it needed for origin broadband router settings?

Each router should be pre-configured as a standard. However, if you need to configure your router, simply follow the instructions below to go online.


How to set it
After connecting the router to power sockets and telephone sockets, open a web browser (eg Google Chrome) and enter “” in the address bar (where you usually enter the address of the website). The login screen should appear. The default username and password will be “admin” and “admin” (all in lowercase). If you want, you can change it later in the “Admin” section of the router menu.



origin broadband router settings page

Then select “Quick Internet Setup” (in the upper left corner of the screen) and follow the step-by-step instructions to restore the connection. The first screen will query for your “connection type”. Select “PPPoE” and click “Next”. You will need your PPP username and password, which is usually written on a sticker or card attached to the router.



 After entering your PPP username and password, click ‘Next’.

Services – configuration

And what about Wifi?

Now you have to define the wireless connection settings. Depending on the specific router model, you can have the 2.4 GHz setting, 5 GHz setting or both. Enter the desired network name and password in the first two fields and make sure the box is checked, which means “Copy settings from 2.4 GHz to 5 GHz”.


Your network name should be named “Origin Broadband” (to help you find it), and your password can be any. You need to make sure your password is between 8 and 63 characters long.

You should now be online and online.



origin broadband router settings Security above all

Keep in mind that it is extremely important to have a secure username and password to access the WiFi network, which is only available to people you know and trust. If someone commits a crime or engages in any illegal activity from a home broadband connection, the payer of this connection may be legally or financially responsible.



Something else?
Alternatively, if you want to manually configure the router’s WPA settings, you can download the ADSL Configuration Guide or the VDSL Configuration Guide (Fiber) here.



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router settings bt

How can I set or change the administrator password in my BT Hub
Here you will find help on how to set up an administrator password for your Hub Manager or how to change or reset the administrator password for your BT Hub.

The first time you open the Panel Manager, you will be prompted to change the password. Just follow the instructions on the screen.


If you have set up your password and want to change it, follow the instructions for your BT Hub below.

If you forget your password, you can use the override function to set up new ones, along with password hints to help you remember them in the future.


router settings bt

BT Smart Hub and Ultrafast Smart Hub

To change the administrator password in the BT Smart Hub, start by opening a new browser on the device connected to the hub and enter in the address bar – this will open the hub manager.
Click Advanced settings

router settings bt

router settings bt

Enter the administrator password. If you have not changed it before, you will find the default password on the Hub tab on the back of the Hub. If you’ve changed it and now you forgot it, you can use the password override feature to set up a new password without losing all of your personal settings and Hub configuration




To change the administrator’s password

you will be prompted to enter your current password.
Then enter the new password twice – remember that the administrator password is case sensitive, and must be 5-20 characters long.
You can also enter a password hint (for example, “My first animal name”).


If you forget your password, when you have to enter it later, you can ask the Center Manager to suggest it to help you. If you still do not remember your password, Smart Hub has a password overwrite feature that allows you to create a new password without losing all router settings bt and Hub configuration




router settings bt

You may be prompted that the chosen password is not as secure as it could be. You’ll get some useful tips on how to increase your password security. To continue with the desired password, click Accept

router settings bt

Capacitor uses and Major function of the Capactior

Capacitors are used in almost all electronic products in various ways. At the simplest level, they are loaded with electricity and then they release the whole current at once. This may not seem particularly impressive, but its loading and unloading work with the camera’s flash and tuning knob on your radio, which prevents the speakers from exploding.



capacitor uses in timing

Capacitors can be used in a time-dependent circuit because they are charged and discharged at regular intervals. It can be combined with any light-emitting diode or with a loudspeaker system, and probably any flashing light you see or regular sounds use a timing capacitor.



capacitor uses in smoothing

Electricity from AC power oscillates at regular intervals, which means that the charge in the circuit constantly changes between positive and negative. The output power from the AC source will be much higher than from the DC power source.


capacitor uses


However, many household appliances use direct current through the use of a capacitor. The capacitor can convert alternating current into direct current by “smoothing” the current. Imagine that alternating current is a single line constantly winding up and down.


The capacitor will charge when this line increases and the capacitor discharge at the top. When it is completely discharged, it starts charging again, so that the output current never has time for total immersion and works as if it was a constant current.



capacitor in Coupling

Capacitors can pass alternating current and at the same time block DC in the process described by The Electronics Club as “capacitor coupling”. This is used for the loudspeaker. Speakers work, converting alternating current into sound, but they can be damaged by any DC that reaches them. The capacitor prevents this.


capacitor uses



capacitor uses in Tuning

Variable capacitor uses in tuning circuits in radio systems by connecting them to an LC oscillator. The capacitor is charged and then discharged to the wire coil, generating a magnetic field. After the capacitor is completely discharged, the magnetic field begins to collapse, charging the capacitor.


This charging and discharging current take place at regular intervals, but it can be changed by changing the capacitor. If the frequency of these intervals is the same as the frequency of a nearby radio station, the amplifier on the radio will amplify this signal and you will hear the transmission.


capacitor uses in Energy storage

An energy storage capacitor for a flash in vintage Polaroid
The capacitor can store electricity when it is connected to the charging circuit. And when it is disconnected from the charging circuit.


It can dissipate this stored energy, so it can be used like a temporary battery. Capacitors are widely used in electronic devices to maintain power when replacing batteries. (This avoids losing information in volatile memory.)


Conventional electrostatic capacitors provide less than 360 joules per kilogram of energy density, while capacitors using development technology can provide over 2.52 kilojoules per kilogram.


In automotive audio systems, large capacitors store energy for an amplifier that can be used on demand. The uninterruptible power supply (UPS) can be equipped with maintenance-free capacitors that extend the service life.



Pulse power and weapons

Groups of large, specially constructed, low-inductive high-voltage capacitors (capacitor banks) are used to power huge current pulses for many impulse power applications. These include electromagnetic formation, Marx generators, pulsed lasers (especially TEA lasers), pulse forming networks, fusion experiments, and particle accelerators.



Large banks of capacitors (tanks) are used as energy sources for explosive detonators of bridges or shines in nuclear weapons and other special weapons. Experimental work is underway with the use of capacitor banks as sources of power for electromagnetic shield and electromagnetic rifles or coils.



capacitor uses in Power conditioning

Reservoir capacitor uses in power supplies in which they smooth the output of a full or half-wave rectifier. They can also be used in the charging pump circuits as an energy storage element in generating higher voltages than the input voltage.


Capacitors are connected in parallel to the DC circuits of most electronic devices to mitigate current changes in signal or control circuits. Audio equipment, for example, uses several capacitors to cut off the noise of the power line before entering the signal circuits.


Capacitors act as a local reserve for a DC source and bypass AC currents from the PSU. This is used in car audio applications when the stiffening capacitor compensates for the inductance. The resistance of the conductors leading to the lead-acid battery.



the capacitor  in Power factor correction

In electricity distribution, capacitors are used to correct the power factor. Such capacitors often occur in the form of three capacitors connected as a three-phase electrical load. In particular, the values of these capacitors were given not in farads, but rather as a reactive power in reactive volt-amperes (VAr).


The aim is to counteract inductive loads from devices such as an induction electric motors, and transmission lines so that the load seems to be mostly resistant. Individual motor or lamp loads can have capacitors for power factor correction.


The larger sets of capacitors (usually with automatic switching devices) can be installed in a cargo center in a building or in a large power substation. In high voltage DC transmission systems, power factor correction capacitors may have induction coils to suppress harmonic currents that would otherwise be injected into the AC power system.



 Capacitive coupling

Because the capacitors send AC power but block DC signals (when they are charged to DC voltage applied). They are often used to separate AC components and a fixed signal. This method is known as AC coupling or “capacitive coupling”. In this case, a large capacity value is used. The value of which does not have to be carefully controlled. Whose reactance is small at the frequency of the signal.

High pass and low pass filters
Further information: High-pass filter and low-pass filter
Noise and silencer filters. The Robust damping capacitor with screw terminals
When the induction circuit is open, the current through the inductance collapses quickly creating a high voltage per circuit.

Diode uses in computer & electronics components

The most popular function of the diode is to allow the electric current to flow in one direction (called diode direction in the forward direction), blocking it in the opposite direction (the reverse direction).



History of Diode

The first types of diode uses are valves. They were vacuum tubes. They were in a glass tube (similar to a light bulb). Inside the glass bulb was a small metal wire and a large metal plate. Thomas Edison also discovered this property while working on his light bulbs.


diode uses
diode uses



The structure of the clamp diode

Semiconductor diodes consist of two types of semiconductors connected to each other. One type has atoms with additional electrons (called n-sides). The second type has atoms that want electrons (called p side). For this reason, the electric energy will flow easily from the side with too many electrons to the side, with too few numbers.



However, the electric current will not flow easily in the opposite direction. Silicon with arsenic dissolved in it is a good n-side semiconductor, whereas the dissolved silicon in aluminum forms a good semiconductor on the p side. Other chemicals may also work.



Diode uses and it’s the function
The positive voltage on the p side

For this reason, current flow it may exist, but it requires a certain amount of voltage to start it (a very small amount of voltage is not enough to obtain the flow of electric current).

diode uses

The operating voltage of the silicon diode is approximately 0.7 V. The germanium diode needs an excitation voltage of approximately 0.3 V.



The negative voltage on the p side

If instead, you specify a negative voltage on the p side, and a positive voltage on the n side, the electrons on the side want to go to a positive voltage source instead of on the other side of the diode. The same happens on the p side.


So the current will not flow between the two sides of the diode. Increasing the voltage will eventually cause the electric current to flow. The influence of temperature, as the temperature rises, the trip voltage decreases. This facilitates the current flow through the diode.



Types of diode use

There are many types of diodes. Some have very specific applications, and some have many uses.


Diode symbol, Zener diode symbol, Schottky diode symbol, Diode tunnel symbol. LED symbol, SVG Photodiode symbol, SVG Symbol, symbol.svg
Light-emitting diode Varicap photodiode. Silicone-controlled rectifier
Standard rectifier diode.


It changes A / C (alternating current, like in the wall at home) to D / C (DC, used in electronics). The standard rectifier diode has specific requirements. Modern analog and digital electronics use such rectifiers.



The LED produces light when current flows through it. It is a more durable and more efficient way of creating light than traditional light bulbs. The LEDs were first used in the seventies.


A light-emitting diode can eventually replace a light bulb because the developing technology makes it brighter and cheaper (it is already more efficient and lasts longer).



what is a diode uses for the photodiode

The photodiode is a photodetector (the opposite of a light-emitting diode). He reacts to the light that he enters. The photodiodes have a window or fiber optic connection that allows them to catch fire on a sensitive part of the diode. The diodes usually have strong resistance; light reduces resistance.



Zener diode
The Zener diode resembles a normal diode, but instead of being destroyed by a large back-voltage, it passes the current.


Varactor diode
The varactor diode is used in many devices. It uses the area between the side p and the side n of the diode, in which electrons and openings balance each other. Called

Components of computer system and its function

  The main components of the computer system and its function are Processor Main memory Additional memory Input devices Output devices, the processor, auxiliary memory, power supply, and auxiliary equipment. Many components are connected to the main computer board, called the motherboard.



The power supply provides power for most components. Various input devices (such as the keyboard) and output devices (such as a monitor) are connected through the connectors at the back of the case.



main components of the computer system and its function



The motherboard

components of the computer system and its function

 The Motherboard is the heart of the computer. It is a circuit type board. The Peripheral devices connected to the input/output hub on the motherboard; critical hardware such as graphics card, central unit, and random access memory, installed on connectors on the surface of the board, located inside the casing.



Modern motherboards incorporate integrated components such as video and audio controllers that allow the computer to render graphics, play audio and other functions. The board has electrical circuits that provide power to any equipment connected to the motherboard.




CPU Processors

components of computer system and its function
components of the computer system and its function

A processor also called a microprocessor, executes programming instructions. It consists of two critical components, a control unit and an arithmetic logic unit (ALU).


The control unit retrieves information from a mass storage device, such as RAM, and executes the code contained in the data. The processor uses the ALU to perform mathematical calculations and analyze logical operations.





components of computer system and its function
components of the computer system and its function

RAM (random access memory), also known as system memory, contains data used by the computer. For example, when you open an application in Windows, the program is loaded into RAM, so that the processor has quick access to the coding instructions.


However, the data in the memory is temporary; RAM is referred to as an “unstable” storage device because all information on the system is lost when the computer is turned off.




Hard disk

components of computer system and its function
components of the computer system and its function

The hard disk, unlike RAM, is referred to as “non-volatile” because the data stored on the disk remains even when the computer loses power. Solid-state drives are high-end mass storage devices that serve the same purpose as hard drives, but instead use flash memory.


SSDs are faster and more efficient, but on the day of publication are also much more expensive. RAM obtains data from the hard disk; The CPU retrieves data from RAM.



Power Supply Unit

components of the computer system and its function

The power supply provides power to the computer and its devices. It connects to the motherboard, and the electric charge is distributed to the onboard devices via circuits or traces.


The power supply also connects directly to other hardware components, such as a hard drive and higher-end graphics cards, because often the electric charge provided by the motherboard is not sufficient to power these components.





You need a monitor and keyboard to be able to enter commands and view their results – as well as a mouse, a small device used to point and select items on the screen. Most computers have additional system parts, such as an optical drive that allows you to play and record music and video.



Short question and Answer for components of the computer system and its function


Question 1. What is a computer?

Answer: A computer is a programmable machine. It is an integral part of everyday life.

Question 2. What are the various components of the computer system and its function?

Answer: The computer performs the following functions; a) Accepting data b) Data processing c) Data storage d) Displaying data Question.


3. How does the minicomputer differ from the host computer?

Answer: A minicomputer is a multiprocessor computer and a multiple-access computer. But mainframe computers are huge computers, usually occupying entire rooms or floors. It is very expensive.


Question 4. What is a Super Computer?

Answer: The fastest type of computer. For example, weather forecasting requires a supercomputer. Other uses of supercomputers include animated graphics, fluid dynamic calculations, nuclear energy research, and oil exploration.


Question 5. Identify the input and output device?

Answer:  Examples of input devices are the keyboard, mouse, scanner, digital camera etc … while output devices include a monitor, printer, projector, etc.


Question 6. What is a storage device and  What is the common classification?

Answer: Different types of memory devices are) Magnetic devices. b. Optical devices. c. Solid-state storage devices.


Question 7. What do you mean by the processing device? or  What are the different types of components of the computer system and its function processing devices?

Answer: Data processing is the main function of the computer. Different types of processing devices in a computer are: a) Microprocessor b) Chipset c) BIOS.


Question 8. Distinguishes between serial and parallel ports?

 Most serial ports on personal computers are compatible with RS-232C or RS-422 standards. A parallel interface for attaching an external device, such as a printer.


On personal computers, the parallel port uses a 25-pin connector (type DB-25) and is used to connect printers, computers and other devices that require relatively high bandwidth. It uses parallel data transmission.


Question 9. What are the interface components of the computer system and its function?

Answer: This is a communication channel that allows the computer to exchange information with various devices.


Question 10. What is a microprocessor?

Answer: the most important electronic component on your computer. It is a programmable logic device for data processing.

what is switch in networking

A network switch is a computer network device that connects many devices together in a computer network by switching packets, which receive and transfer data to a target device.


The network switch in the field of computer networks is nothing more than combining multiple computers, printers, and other devices into a network so that they can communicate.




what is switch in networking
what is the switch in networking




In small networks the number of collisions was minimal, but in the case of more stations, the escalation number escalated and the communication speed dropped sharply.


To work around this problem

None of the stations on any of the other ports can hear this communication. This allows simultaneous broadcasting of many programs because there are “virtual private circuits” between the sender and the recipient.


Therefore, the networks operate at full speed all the time. Another advantage is that the network can include a mix of slower and faster devices (such as printers that communicate only at Fast Ethernet (100 Mb / s) and computers that communicate with Gigabit Ethernet (1000 Mbps, aka) 1 Gbps)) and no one in the network has this effect, because the switch slows down the sending of data to a slower device or accelerates it if necessary to a faster device.



what is the switch in networking

How to locate the network connection port on the switch from the network port?

Another way is to have helper plugins and disconnect the network while you go to the switch and see which light flashes when your friend does it. Before you start, you need to know the login and password for your server/switch to “Telnet”. Go to Start: Run: enter “cmd”. Enter “ipconfig” to find the gateway and the IP address to which you are connected.


If you need a Mac address, and because of problems with dynamic IP addresses and changing for some reason, enter “ipconfig / all” with space before “/”. It will display “all” your IP settings, hence “everything”. Now that you have your Gateway address, IP address and Mac address (optional), you cannot start. After pressing “enter” to “ipconfig (/ all)”, or simply on a new empty line, enter “telnet” Gateway Address “”, that is: “telnet” (this is mine).



Enter Login and password so that your server/switch is connected to this device. At any time during the command, you can press the “tab” key to display all available commands. For example, we’ll use the “show” command. If you type “show” and then press the tab key, a list of unavailable commands will appear, and the cursor will be on the line after this list with the still appearing.


We are looking for your IP address or Mac, both if your IP will be permanent (should). Just press the “tab” key until you find one of these addresses. After locating, say “” (my IP address on My VLAN, it is in “ (Gateway) – 10. *. *. * Range”) on the right side will show you which switch/port you are connected to. My shows 5: 2, I am on edge 5, port 2. The blade is a switching device connected on a specific stand.



rack what is the switch in networking

For each new thread, the sequence numbering for these sets of blades begins. Here’s the challenge, you need to know where to start the countdown, “where the blade begins (switching device) 1”. In our stand, we have a “patch panel” at the top of our “power and data” switches.


All of these devices are connected to me in some way (going from patch panel to power and data, to the switch, to the network in the office, to my phone, to my computer). The actual “5: 2” switch meant the above does not start at the bottom of the cabinet.



These devices are very simple and have appropriate functions. The “switch” you are trying to locate, probably the 3Com or Extreme brand, combines two different elements. The switch you are looking for, being your IP Gateway address, starts after a network dump, on your phone or computer, what you do. It may take some practice, as in my case, but after you learn to know where to start, you can find the “5: 2” port in the blink of an eye




What are the advantages of a circuit switch network in a packet switch network?

The basis of the Packet Switched Network is Packet Switching. This network allows the service user to connect to any number of hosts via a local telephone connection / POTS port. Different hosts pay for connecting to this type of network and therefore often it is charged for connection to larger public services, such as Compuserve or The Source.


A Packet Switched Network ensures efficient data transfer and lower rates than normally switched connections, which can be a great convenience if you plan a lot of file transfer between you and the host. Not only communication is efficient, virtually error-free.



During normal circuit-switched calls, there may be a drastic increase in the number of errors, resulting in poor data transfer. When using a packet switched network, it is not important to communicate with the same baud rate as the host.


This device is called a PAD (Packet Assembler Disassembler). PSN also provides access to a variety of information and search services. Although you can subscribe to a service to be able to use its services. The connection is usually free, with the exception of fees for some of the larger subscription services.



what is the switch in networking

What is a circuit with dedicated circuit connections?

A clear physical circuit designed for direct connection of devices such as multiplexers, PBX, and host computers. In the latter case, the circuit includes an access circuit or local loop that connects the initiating device at the customer’s premises to the presence of the supplier (POP) at the edge of the operator’s network. In the case of an existing local stock carrier (ILEC), POP is usually located in the central office (CO).


The dedicated circuit offers the advantages of dedicated accessibility, dedicated bandwidth, and excellent overall performance.

bandwidth what is the switch in networking

 The cost, however, is usually a lump sum, without a component that is sensitive to use; therefore, the organization of end users can use the circuit constantly to the maximum performance at the same cost, as if it did not use this circuit at all.


The nature of traffic in a dedicated circuit is not generally limited and may include voice traffic, computer data, faxes, image, video, and multimedia. The ability to integrate such a wide spectrum of traffic into one facility offers significant performance improvements.


Multi-user organization of users may consider a private leased network to connect pages. However, the process of designing such a network can be difficult. It is necessary to determine the endpoints in the optimal topology. The correct number of circuits and bandwidth requirements of each of them. Because the dedicated circuit includes a specific set of network elements, the circuit is susceptible to interference.



Organizations with intense communication requirements generally believe that dedicated circuits are real alternatives to switched circuits. Large data centers that communicate intensively to support applications such as data backup have traditionally chosen dedicated circuits.

what is switch in networking
what is switch in networking






what is the switch in networking and do switches in the home network do?
You can use the switch to connect different devices. For example, a standard ADSL router has only a port for a single Ethernet cable. If you want to connect 2 or more computers to the Internet, you can use the switch. In this case, the ADSL router and each computer connected to the switch using a standard Ethernet cable. If you do not have an Internet connection, you can still set up a home network to share files, etc.

difference between ram and rom

There is one major difference between ram and rom. ROM can store data without power, and RAM does not. Basically, the ROM is designed for permanent storage, and RAM is for temporary storage.


Alternative explanation

The ROM system is a non-volatile storage medium because ROM does not require a permanent power source to store information stored on it. In contrast, the RAM system is unstable, which means that it loses all information it holds when the power is turned off.



difference between ram and rom
difference between ram and rom


other difference between ram and rom

The ROM chip is used primarily in the process of starting the computer, while the RAM system is used in the normal operation of the computer after the operating system is loaded. Writing data to the ROM system is a much slower process than saving it in a RAM system.


The RAM chip can store many gigabytes (GB) of data, from 1 GB to 256 GB per chip. The ROM chip stores many megabytes (MB) of data, typically 4 MB or 8 MB per chip.



Computer ROM

A good example of ROM is the BIOS of the computer, the PROM chip, which stores the programming needed to start the initial computer startup process. Using a non-volatile storage medium is the only way to start the startup process of computers and other devices. ROM chips are also used in game system cartridges, such as the original Nintendo, Gameboy, Sega Genesis and many more.



Differences in use

RAM memory allows the computer to quickly and efficiently read data to run applications efficiently, while ROM stores the program required to initially start the computer and perform diagnostics. RAM is a popular type of memory found in computers and printers and can reach up to several gigabytes. ROM is usually only a few thousand bytes of memory in personal computers. RAM is the basic and unstable memory





Different types of RAM vs ROM


Another difference between ram and rom are The main types of RAM are static RAM (SRAM), dynamic RAM (DRAM). Static RAM is more expensive and has more storage capacity than dynamic RAM. Static ram needs to be refreshed more often, and therefore slower.


ROMs are integrated circuits that contain data and usually cannot be changed. There are several types that may be slightly modified, including programmable ROM (PROM), erasable programmable ROM (EPROM), electrically erasable programmable ROM (EEPROM) and flash, which is a type of EEPROM memory.


PROM is a type of ROM that can only be programmed once by a special device and uses high voltage. EPROM can be rewritten using UV radiation, while EEPROM can be rewritten electrically and these devices do not need to be removed from the computer.


Flash drives are a modern version of EEPROM and the fastest for erasing and rewriting. Some other popular ROM types are CD-ROMs, CD-Rs, and CD-RWs that are used to store multimedia and music files.