AVM brain | Major Symptoms of AVM brain | What is an AVM

The brain arteriovenous malformation (AVM brain) is a tangle of abnormal blood vessels that connect the arteries and veins in the brain. Arteries are responsible for getting oxygen-rich blood from the heart to the brain. The veins carry oxygen-free blood back to the lungs and heart. The AVM brain disturbs this important process.



The arteriovenous malformation may develop anywhere in the body, but most often occurs in the brain or spine. However, AVM brain devices are rare and affect less than 1 percent of the population. The cause of AVM brain is not clear. Most people are born with them, but sometimes they can be created later in life. They are rarely transmitted genetically between families.



Some people with arteriovenous malformation brain experience signs and symptoms, such as headaches or convulsions. AVM brain is commonly found after scanning the brain for a different health problem or after rupture of the blood vessels and bleeding in the brain (hemorrhage). After the diagnosis of AVM, the brain can often be effectively treated to prevent complications such as brain damage or stroke.



Symptoms of AVM brain

Arterial-venous damage to the brain can not cause any signs or symptoms until the AVM ruptures, causing bleeding in the brain (hemorrhage). In about half of all cerebral AVM, hemorrhage is the first symptom. But some people with AVM brain may feel signs and symptoms other than the bleeding associated with AVM.



In people without hemorrhage, AVM symptoms may include:

Epileptic seizures, A headache or pain in one area of the head, Weakness or numbness in one part of the body,

Some people may experience more serious neurological symptoms and symptoms, depending on the location of AVM, including:


A severe headache, Weakness, numbness or paralysis, Loss of sight, Difficulties in speaking, Confusion or inability to understand others,
Severe instability


Symptoms can occur at any age, but usually, occur between the ages of 10 and 40. Cerebral AVM may eventually damage the brain tissue. The effects slowly grow and often cause symptoms in early adulthood.


However, after reaching middle age, the AVMs have a tendency to remain stable and less likely to cause symptoms. Some pregnant women may worsen symptoms due to changes in blood volume and blood pressure.



One major type of AVM brain, called the vein of Galen, results in symptoms that appear soon or immediately after birth. The main blood vessel involved in this type of AVM brain can cause fluid accumulation in the brain and swelling of the head. Symptoms include swelling of blood vessels visible on the scalp, convulsions, inability to develop, and congestive heart failure.



When to go to the doctor

If you notice any symptoms of AVM, such as seizures, headaches or other symptoms, seek medical attention immediately. Brain bleeding AVM is life-threatening and requires immediate medical attention.


Bleeding in the brain (hemorrhage). AVM exerts extreme pressure on the walls of affected arteries and veins, causing them to lose weight or weaken. This may cause AVM to rupture and bleed into the brain (hemorrhage).



The risk of bleeding from the AVM brain is around 2 percent per year. The risk of bleeding may be higher for some types of AVM or if previous AVMs have been broken.


Some AVM-associated hemorrhages remain undetected because they do not cause severe brain damage or symptoms, but potentially life-threatening bleeding episodes can occur.


Brain AVMs account for about 2 percent of all hemorrhagic strokes each year and are often the cause of hemorrhage in children and young adults with cerebral hemorrhage.


Reduced oxygen

Reduced oxygen in brain tissue. Thanks to AVM, blood bypasses the capillary network and flows directly from the arteries to the veins. The blood flows quickly through the changed path because it is not slowed down by the channels of the smaller blood vessels.


The surrounding brain tissue cannot easily absorb oxygen from the fast-flowing blood. Without enough oxygen, the brain tissues weaken or can completely go out. This causes stroke-like symptoms such as difficulty in speaking, weakness, numbness, loss of vision or severe instability.


Thin or weak blood vessels. AVM exerts extreme pressure on the thin and weak walls of the blood vessels. A bulge in the wall of the blood vessel (an aneurysm) may develop and become susceptible to rupture.
Brain damage. As you grow up, your body can recruit more arteries to supply blood to the fast-flowing AVM.


As a result, some AVMs can grow and move or compress parts of the brain. This may prevent the free flow of protective fluids around the cerebral hemispheres. If the fluid rises, it can direct the brain tissue up towards the skull (hydrocephalus).

Arteriovenous malformation brain (Major) Causes & Risk,Diagnosed

Your cardiovascular system consists of the heart and blood vessels. There are three kinds of blood vessels in the circulatory system: veins, capillaries, and arteries. Arteriovenous malformation defects (AVM) are defects in the blood vessels of the circulatory system. Read below for arteriovenous malformation brain


A developmental defect is an abnormal combination of veins and arteries. It interferes with the ability of your body to circulate blood. It is usually congenital, which means that the condition is present after birth. Although malformations may start anywhere in your body, some development in the brain and spinal cord region, causing seizures and headaches



Causes of arteriovenous malformation brain

Some doctors believe that they appear in the uterus or shortly after birth and appear later when the child is getting old. Children born with AVM may have a bluish tinge on their skin. This is due to the lack of oxygenated blood circulating in the body. The skin tends to darken to deep red or purple when children age and the condition worsens.



The risk for arteriovenous malformation brain

There are some genetic syndromes that may increase the risk of AVM, such as hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia or Osler-Weber-Rendu syndrome. There are rare reports of AVM in several family members, although it is not clear whether it is genetic or accidental.




Symptoms of arteriovenous malformation brain

Symptoms of AVM vary depending on:

AVM location, AVM size

The size of the blood vessels involved in AVM
You can not have significant symptoms if you have AVM in the brain. In some cases, cerebral AVMs cause headaches or convulsions. Unfortunately, due to the lack of symptoms, this type of AVM often goes undiagnosed or unnoticed until it becomes manifest in life-threatening symptoms.




Common brain AVM symptoms include:

cranial bleeding, most often subarachnoid hemorrhage convulsions
headaches focal neurological deficits, such as weakness, numbness or tingling on one part or side of the body confusion.  If AVM is elsewhere in the body, the symptoms may be more pronounced. Common AVM symptoms in the extremities and spinal cord include:


weak muscles, inability to move the limb, lack coordination,

Common symptoms of AVM in the organs, chest or abdomen are:

abdominal pain, back pain, pain in the chest,
irregular sounds in the affected blood vessels


Some of the symptoms in children under the age of 2 includes:

congestive heart failure in which the heart is unable to pump out the blood that got to her, convulsions, hydrocephalus, an expand in fluid in the brain that causes swelling.



arteriovenous malformation brain diagnosed

Your doctor will conduct a physical examination and several tests confirming AVM. It is important to exclude other health problems that may mimic the symptoms of AVM. The imaging tools used to diagnose AVM include:



TK: creates detailed images of the interior of the body
MRI: produces images of the brain and its blood vessels (if you have AVM in the brain, it is especially useful to determine exactly where AVM is found and which brain structures it affects)

angiography: visualizes the blood vessels around the head and neck by injecting the dye through the catheter (which is usually inserted through the blood vessel in the groin)
Magnetic Resonance Angiogram (MRA): creates images of blood vessels.




How is arteriovenous malformation brain treated?

Your treatment plan will depend on your age, condition and physical health. The most important goal is to prevent internal bleeding that can lead to stroke or death.


Your doctor may prescribe medication, even if it does not cure AVM. Drugs control pain and convulsions.


An operation to repair or remove damaged blood vessels is an option. The type of operation you will need depends on the type of AVM. There are three options: conventional surgery, endovascular embolization, radiosurgery



Endovascular embolization is used for arteriovenous malformations in the brain or spinal cord tissue. In this procedure, a thin, flexible tube called a catheter is guided to the AVM to close the abnormal connection. It does not fix AVM, but it reduces the blood flow to it and makes the operation safer.



Radiosurgery requires the use of a highly concentrated beam of radiation and focusing it directly on the site of AVM. Radiation damages the walls of blood vessels and creates scars that will ultimately stop blood flow to AVM.

Wallenberg syndrome (Major) Symptoms of Wallenberg syndrome

The Wallenberg syndrome is a rare condition in which the infarction or stroke occurs in the lateral cortex. The lateral core is part of the brainstem. Oxidized blood does not reach the part of the brain when the arteries that lead to it are blocked. Due to this blockage, a stroke may occur. This condition is also sometimes called a lateral-medial infarction.



Symptoms of Wallenberg syndrome

The brain stem is responsible for providing information to the spinal cord for motor and sensory functions. Stroke in this area causes problems with the perception of muscles and functions.


The most common symptoms of people with Wallenberg syndrome are dysphagia or difficulty swallowing. This can become very serious if it affects how much you are getting nutrition. Other symptoms are:


hoarseness, nausea,  vomiting,  hiccup,  quick eye movements or nystagmus, reducing sweating,  problems with feeling body temperature,  dizziness, difficulty walking,  difficulty in maintaining balance,


Sometimes people with Wallenberg syndrome experience paralysis or numbness on one side of the body. This can occur in the limbs, on the face and even in a small area such as language.


You can also feel the difference in how hot or cold something is on one side of the body. Some people walk on a slope or report that everything around them seems to be tilted or balanced.



This syndrome can also cause bradycardia or slow heart rate and low or high blood pressure. Discuss any symptoms you have with your doctor. Any information can help to make a diagnosis.




The risk for Wallenberg syndrome

Researchers still need to understand why this type of stroke occurs. However, some researchers have found a relationship between those who suffer from the arterial disease, heart disease, blood clots or minor neck injuries due to rotational activities and Wallenberg Syndrome.


Small neck injury is a common cause among people under 45. Please inform your doctor if you have experienced any of these problems.




 The Wallenberg Syndrome diagnosed

The doctor usually makes a diagnosis after thoroughly reviewing the person’s health history and listening to her description of symptoms. You may need a CT or MRI scan if the doctor suspects you have a Wallenberg syndrome. They can order these imaging tests to confirm whether there is a block in the artery near the spinal cord.



The Wallenberg team treated

No medicine is available for this condition, but your doctor will probably focus on treatment on relieving or removing your symptoms. They can prescribe speech and swallow therapy to help you learn to swallow again.


They may also recommend a feeding tube if your condition is severe. It will help you to provide the necessary nutrients. Your doctor may prescribe medication.


Analgesics can help treat chronic or long-term pain. Alternatively, they may prescribe a blood thinner, such as heparin or warfarin, to reduce or dissolve a blockage in the artery. It can also help prevent the formation of blood clots in the future.


Sometimes an antiepileptic or anti-epileptic drug called gabapentin may help relieve symptoms. The operation may be an option to remove the clot in extreme cases. This is not so common in treatment because of difficulty in getting into this area of the brain. Discuss your treatment options with your doctor and act exactly as planned.



The long-term prospects for people with Wallenberg syndrome

Long-term prospects for people with Wallenberg syndrome are quite positive. Successful cure depends on the place of impact in the brainstem. It also depends on how much damage has occurred. Some people can recover from a few weeks to six months after treatment.


Others with more significant lesions may have problems with a permanent disability or more. If you have any questions, please discuss with your doctor a long-term perspective. Remember to follow the treatment plan carefully to ensure the best chance of full recovery.

schizophrenia symptoms in females(Life challenges)

There is no difference in the incidence and prevalence of schizophrenia between men and women, although schizophrenia is more strongly associated with younger men. This may be due to the fact that women more often than men experience the beginning of schizophrenia.


Schizophrenia symptoms in females, while the onset of males usually occurs in the early 20s. Also, because women with schizophrenia are more socially active, their schizophrenia may be less detectable. Read on more about Schizophrenia symptoms in females.




Schizophrenia symptoms in females

The criteria for diagnosing schizophrenia symptoms in females are the same in men, but the characteristics of schizophrenia vary between the sexes. For example, women may show depression or anxiety, which may increase the risk of suicide.

Women with schizophrenia rarely have symptoms such as:


Flat affect (monotonous voice, blunt expression)
Blunt emotional reactions (not responding strongly emotionally to good or bad news)



Speech reduction,Social withdrawal

Women with schizophrenia may be more physically active and more hostile than men. They may also experience more auditory hallucinations as well as paranoid and persecuting illusions. Paranoid delusions consist of thoughts like “my husband cheats me” when he is not.




Life challenges for women with schizophrenia

Usually, women with schizophrenia function better than men, often because the late age of the disease is a less serious form of mental illness. Women with schizophrenia more often experience less hospitalization and shorter hospital visits than men.


Some researchers believe that the later effect is that hormones such as estrogens have a protective effect. However, this difference in the starting age does not occur in all ethnic groups. For example, many studies in India did not show a difference in the average age of men and women.



Women with schizophrenia are more likely to have married and have children. It is more likely that they will have unplanned pregnancies than women without this disease. In developed countries, women with schizophrenia experience greater homelessness. However, they are less susceptible than men to disorders related to substance use or smoking.


Older women experience severe late dyskinesia (TD), an involuntary movement disorder usually seen in the jaw, lips and tongue caused by antipsychotic drugs, more often than older men. In the end, being a woman and suffering from schizophrenia is also more related to the incidence of migraine and thyroid problems.

schizophrenia symptoms in females
schizophrenia symptoms in females



Treatment of women with schizophrenia

Although the treatment of mental illness is not usually distributed on the basis of sex, doctors best serve women, taking into account their unique experience of schizophrenia and the unique challenges they face.


Because women have a later onset of the disease and rarely feel affective symptoms, clinicians need to be careful to exclude other mental disorders such as the schizoaffective disorder or bipolar disorder when diagnosing schizophrenia.



Treatment of women with schizophrenia should include psychoeducation and support for the needs of mothers with children. Antipsychotic drugs can affect breastfeeding and the amount of energy that a mother needs to give birth to her babies. 7 Women-friendly treatment programs should also include education about physical health.


Women with schizophrenia rarely care for their physical health. This leaves the risk of untreated breast cancer, osteoporosis, and thyroid disease. Mental health specialists should also consider creating safety plans for women with schizophrenia who are at increased risk of committing suicide.



Every person suffering from a mental illness is a natural person and experiences challenges related to mental illness as a natural person. Women with schizophrenia are no exception. 

Schizophrenia types & Major Symptoms,Causes,Diagnosis,Treatment

Schizophrenia is a chronic psychiatric disorder. People with this disorder experience distortion of reality, often experiencing illusions or hallucinations. Although accurate estimates are difficult to obtain, it is estimated that it affects about 1% of the population.


 Misunderstandings about this disorder are common. For example, some people think that it creates a “split personality”.Read below for schizophrenia types.


Schizophrenia can occur in men and women of all ages. Men often have symptoms in their late teens or in the early ’20s. Women show symptoms in the late 1920s and early 1930s. Here’s what you need to know.



schizophrenia types

Schizophrenia was once divided into five subtypes. Today, schizophrenia is one diagnosis. Names of different types help physicians and healthcare professionals plan treatment.


These Schizophrenia  types included:

Paranoid. In 2013, doctors stated that paranoia is a “positive” symptom of the disorder, not a separate one.


Hebephrenic or disorganized. This type has been diagnosed in people who have not experienced hallucinations or illusions but have disorganized speech or behavior.


Undifferentiated. Doctors have diagnosed people with this subtype who have shown more than one type of dominant symptom.


Residual. If someone was diagnosed with schizophrenia early in life, but the symptoms did not occur later, this subtype could be used for them.


Catatonic. As the name suggests, this subtype was diagnosed in people who showed signs of autism or who developed an effect similar to stupefaction.


Although these subtypes are no longer used to diagnose schizophrenia, you can read more about each of them and the symptoms that will classify them.

schizophrenia types
schizophrenia types


Diagnosis and tests of schizophrenia

There is not one test to diagnose schizophrenia. A full psychiatric test can help the doctor diagnose. You must see a psychiatrist or mental health specialist.

During the appointment visit, answer questions about:

Your medical history, mental health,  family medical history,
Your doctor can do the following: physical exam, blood work


imaging studies, including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computed tomography (CT). Sometimes there may be other reasons for your symptoms, even if they may be similar to schizophrenia. These causes may include:

The use of substances, some medicines, other mental illness


Your doctor can diagnose schizophrenia if you have at least two symptoms for one month. These symptoms must include:

hallucinations, illusions, speech disorganization



Treatment of schizophrenia

There is no cure for schizophrenia. Treatment can control or reduce the severity of symptoms. It is important to get treatment from a psychiatrist or mental health specialist who has experience in treating people with this disorder. You can also work with a social worker or case manager.


Possible therapies include:

Medicines Antipsychotics are the most common treatment for schizophrenia. Drugs can help stop:

hallucinations, illusions, psychosis symptoms If you experience psychosis, you can be hospitalized and treated under strict medical supervision.


Psychosocial intervention

Psychosocial intervention is another treatment option for all schizophrenia types. This includes individual therapy to help manage stress and illness.

Social training can improve your social and communication skills. Vocational rehabilitation can provide you with the skills you need to get back to work. This can make it easier to keep your regular job.


Alternative treatments for schizophrenia

Drugs are important in the treatment of all schizophrenia types. However, some people with disabilities may want to consider a supplementary medicine. If you decide to use these alternative treatments, make sure that treatment is safe in collaboration with your doctor.


The types of alternative treatments for schizophrenia include:

vitamin treatment, fish oil supplements, glycine supplements, diet management

brain stem stroke syndrome, Major Symptoms & types

Complications of brain stem stroke Striking the brain may result in a loss of sense of smell and taste. Other rare complications include coma and closed syndrome. The blocked syndrome is a condition in which your whole body, except for the eye muscles, is paralyzed. People are able to think and communicate using eye movements such as blinking. Read below brain stem stroke syndrome.



 Brain stem stroke syndrome

The stroke occurs when the blood supply to the brain is interrupted. The way a stroke affects the brain depends on which part of the brain is damaged and to what extent. Sitting just above the spinal cord, the brain stem controls your breathing, heartbeat and blood pressure. It also commands speech, swallowing, hearing and eye movements.


In brain stem stroke syndrome, Impulses sent by other parts of the brain move through the brainstem on the way to different parts of the body. For the sake of survival, we depend on brainstem function. Brain stroke threatens the body’s bodily functions, making him a life-threatening condition.



Two types of stroke

The most common type of stroke is an ischemic stroke caused by a blood clot. The clot may form in an artery that supplies blood to the brain. A clot that forms elsewhere can travel through blood vessels until it is trapped in the blood that supplies the brain. When the blood can not get into the part of the brain, the brain tissue in this area dies because it does not get oxygen.


In addition to blood clots, the dissection of arteries may also cause an ischemic stroke. Cutting the arteries is a tear in the artery that supplies blood to the brain. As a result of tears, blood can accumulate in the arterial wall and cause blood flow obstruction. This pressure can also lead the wall to crack, crack or leak. Another type of stroke is a hemorrhagic stroke. This happens when the weak blood vessel breaks, causing the blood and pressure in the brain to accumulate.


Typical symptoms of a stroke

The symptoms of stroke depend on which area of the brain is affected. Striking the brain can interfere with vital functions such as breathing and heartbeat. Other functions that we do without thinking, such as eye movements and swallowing, can also be changed.


Brain stroke may also interfere with speech and hearing and make you feel dizzy. All signals from your brain move through the brainstem to reach different parts of your body. Nerve cells from different parts of the brain carry these signals through the core of the brain to the spinal cord.


When the blood flow in the brainstem is interrupted, as in the case of a stroke, these brain signals are also disrupted. In turn, the impact on different parts of the body controlled by these signals. Therefore, some people feel numbness on one or both sides of the body or paralysis in the hands or legs.

Who can have a stroke?

Everyone can have a stroke, but the risk increases with age. The history of stroke or mini-stroke, also known as a transient ischemic attack, increases the risk. People over 65 make up two-thirds of all strokes.


Men and people of African-American, Latin, Asian or Pacific origin are also more at risk. However, women are more likely to die of stroke than men.

Other shapes that increase the risk of stroke include

high blood pressure, high cholesterol, diabetes,
cardiovascular disease, some blood disorders, pregnancy, tumor, autoimmune diseases


Risk factors related to lifestyle

Some factors that increase the risk of brain stem stroke syndrome are out of control. But many lifestyle options that can increase the likelihood of a stroke is not. These include long-term hormone replacement therapies and contraceptive pills. Women over the age of 35 who also smoke are, particularly at high risk.


Behaviors that increase the risk of stroke include:

smoking, lack of physical activity, alcohol abuse,
drug use such as cocaine, heroin, and amphetamines

Thalamic stroke Major (Symptoms), Causes, Treatment, Recovery

Thalamic stroke is a type of lumbar stroke that refers to a stroke in the deep part of the brain. Hill strokes occur in your thalamus, a small but important part of your brain. He participates in many key aspects of everyday life, including speech, memory, balance, motivation, and feelings of physical touch and pain.



 Symptoms of  Thalamic stroke

The symptoms of the thalamic stroke vary depending on which part of the hill is affected. However, some of the general symptoms of stroke include:


loss of feeling difficulties with movement or maintaining balance difficulty speaking loss of sight or disturbances sleep disorders lack of interest or enthusiasm changes in the scope of attention memory loss upper pain, also known as central pain, which is associated with burning or freezing, as well as intense pain, usually in the head, arms or legs.


Thalamic stroke causes

Strokes are classified as ischemic or hemorrhagic, depending on their cause. About 85 percent of all strokes are ischemic. This means that they are caused by a blocked artery in the brain, often due to a blood clot. In turn, hemorrhagic strokes are caused by a rupture or leakage of the blood vessel to the brain. The thalamic stroke may be ischemic or hemorrhagic.

 Risk factors Thalamic stroke

Some people have a greater risk of upper strokes. Things that increase risk are:

high blood pressure, high cholesterol, cardiovascular diseases, including arrhythmias or heart failure, diabetes, smoking history of a previous stroke or myocardial infarction.



Diagnosed Thalamic stroke

If your doctor thinks you can have a Thalamic stroke, it will probably start with an MRI scan or CT scan to determine the size of the lesion. They can also take a blood sample for further testing to check blood glucose levels, platelet counts, and other information.


Depending on your symptoms and the history of the disease, they can also perform an electrocardiogram to check for any cardiovascular conditions that may have caused your stroke. You may also need ultrasounds to see how much blood flows through the arteries.



How does it treat?

Thalamic stroke is an emergency medical emergency that requires immediate treatment. The specific treatment you will receive depends on whether the stroke was ischemic or hemorrhagic.


 Treatment of ischemic stroke Treatment of strokes caused by a blocked artery usually includes Drugs that dissolve a blood clot that restores blood to your hill Procedure for removing a blood clot with a catheter for larger clots Treatment of hemorrhagic stroke. Treatment of hemorrhagic stroke focuses on finding and treating the source of bleeding. After stopping bleeding, other treatments include:


stopping medicines that can thin your blood, drugs that lower high blood pressure, surgery to prevent the outflow of blood from a ruptured vessel, surgery to repair other defective arteries that may burst


What is a recovery?

After the thalamic stroke, full recovery can last from one to two months. Similarly, they can also prescribe blood pressure medication if you have high blood pressure. If you have a central pain syndrome, your doctor may prescribe amitriptyline or lamotrigine to help control your symptoms. Depending on your general health, you may also need medication for:

high cholesterol, heart disease, diabetes



Physical therapy and rehabilitation

Your doctor will probably recommend rehabilitation, usually within one or two days after the stroke. The goal is to re-acquire skills that you might lose during a stroke. About two-thirds of people with stroke require a certain level of rehabilitation or physiotherapy. The type of rehabilitation needed depends on the exact location and severity of the stroke.


Common types include: physical therapy aimed at compensating for physical disability, such as an inability to use one hand or rebuilding strength in limbs damaged by strokes speech therapy to help you regain lost speech skills cognitive therapy that helps in memory loss advice or join a support group to help you adapt to new changes and connect with others in a similar situation Lifestyle changes After the stroke, there is an increased risk of another.


You can help reduce the risk by: after a healthy diet for the heart. quitting smoking. regular exercises. managing your weight

Lacunar stroke symptoms | Major causes and treatment

A stroke happens when blood moves to the brain. Strokes caused by blockages in the blood vessels in the brain are called ischemic strokes. Lacunar stroke symptoms is a type of ischemic stroke that occurs when the flow of blood to one of the small arteries in the depths of the brain is blocked.


As state by the National Institutes of Health (NIH), lacunar strokes represent about one-fifth of all strokes. Any type of stroke is dangerous because the brain cells are deprived of oxygen and start dying within a few minutes.



lacunar stroke symptoms

The symptoms of a stroke usually appear suddenly and without warning. Lacunar stroke symptoms may include slurred speech inability to raise one hand it falls on one side of the face numbness.


It often only on one side of the body difficulty walking or moving your arms confusion problems with memory difficulty in speaking or understanding spoke language headache loss of consciousness or coma the brain cells die, they affect the functions controlled by this area of the brain. These lacunar stroke symptoms may vary depending on the location of the stroke.



What causes a lacunar stroke?

Lacunar stroke is caused by a lack of blood flow in the smaller arteries that provide deep brain structures. The most important risk factor for the development of lacunar stroke is chronic high blood pressure. The condition may cause narrowing of the arteries. This makes it easier for cholesterol plaques or blood clots to block the flow of blood into the deep tissues of the brain.


lacunar stroke symptoms
lacunar stroke symptoms MRI

Who is at risk of stroke?

The risk of a stroke in the lumbar region increases with age. People at risk are people with chronic hypertension, heart disease or diabetes. African Americans, Hispanics and people with familial stroke are also more at risk than other groups.


Additional factors that increase the likelihood of lacunar stroke include:

smoking or exposure to secondhand smoke, alcohol use, drug addiction, pregnancy, use of birth control pills, Sedentary lifestyle, bad diet, high cholesterol, obstructive sleep apnea.
It is important to conduct annual physical examinations for health problems that may increase the risk of stroke, including high cholesterol and obstructive sleep apnea.



How do you recognize the lacunar stroke symptoms?

For any type of stroke, urgent treatment is necessary, therefore immediate diagnosis is necessary. Your physician may check your blood pressure and ask about your symptoms. A detailed neurological test will be used to check for damage to parts of the brain that control your body functions.

If your symptoms are consistent with your stroke, immediate diagnostic tests will likely include a CT scan or MRI scan to perform detailed brain images. Doppler ultrasound can also be used.


This will measure the amount of blood flowing through the arteries and veins. You can request heart rate tests such as electrocardiogram and echocardiogram. You can also check your kidney and liver function and various blood tests.



What is the treatment of lacunar stroke?

If you have a stroke in the lumbar area, early treatment increases your chances of survival and can prevent further damage. When you arrive at the emergency room, you will probably receive aspirin and other medicines. This reduces the risk of another stroke.


It may be necessary to take actions to support breathing and heart activity. You can receive intravenous medicines to remove clots. Under extreme circumstances, the doctor can deliver drugs directly to the brain.


 Because of brain damage, stroke patients often have to re-learn skills and regain strength. It may take weeks, months or years. Most people who have a stroke require long-term treatment. This may include medicines used to treat high blood pressure, diabetes or high cholesterol.



After stroke lacunar, some people also require

physiotherapy in order to restore the function of occupational therapy to improve the skills needed for everyday life speech therapy to improve language skills.



What are the long-term prospects?

The quality of life after a lumbar stroke depends on many factors, including age and time of starting treatment after the onset of lacunar stroke symptoms. Disability is constant in some patients. They can be:

paralysis, numbness, loss of muscle control on one side of the body, tingling sensation in the affected limb.


Even after rehabilitation and recovery after stroke, some stroke victims have problems with short-term memory. Some may also have problems with thinking and reasoning. Controlling emotions can also be a problem. Some who have suffered a stroke also have depression.


Having a stroke in the lumbar area increases the risk of further strokes, which is why regular medical care is very important. According to the American Stroke Association, although the incidence of stroke is higher in men, women account for more than half the deaths per stroke in all age groups.



Lower your risk

Lacunar stroke symptoms is a life-threatening condition. Some risk factors, such as aging and family history, are outside your control, but certain lifestyle behaviors can have an impact on risk.


Maintain a healthy diet. Exercise daily for at least 30 minutes. Together, these habits can help reduce the risk of stroke. If you have high blood pressure, heart disease or diabetes, try to control it and regularly see a doctor. Do not smoke. And most importantly, you should ask for medical help for the first signs of stroke – every second is important.

Neurotransmitters function and List of Neurotransmitters and their types

A neurotransmitter is a chemical substance produced in the body. It is responsible for a process called synaptic transmission or neurotransmission. In this article, we will discuss the mechanism of neurotransmission, the classification of neurotransmitters and several clinical remarks on disorders related to the excessive and lack of some neurotransmitters function.



The neurotransmitters function

Excitatory neurotransmitters, these types of neurotransmitters have a stimulating effect on the neuron, which means that they increase the probability that the neuron will trigger a potential action. Some of the major excitatory neurotransmitters include adrenaline and norepinephrine.


Inhibitory Neutralizers, these types of neurotransmitters have an inhibitory effect on the neuron; they reduce the likelihood that the neuron will activate the action potential. Some of the major inhibitory neurotransmitters include serotonin and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA).


Some neurotransmitters, such as acetylcholine and dopamine, can produce both stimulatory and inhibitory effects depending on the type of receptors present.


Neurotransmitter Modulators, these neurotransmitters, often referred to as neuromodulators, are able to affect a larger number of neurons at the same time. These neuromodulators also affect the operation of other chemical transmitters. When synaptic neurotransmitters release from the axon, it rapidly interacts with other receptor neurons, neuromodulators diffuse over a larger area and operate more slowly.


neurotransmitters function
neurotransmitters function



Types of neurotransmitters

There are many different ways to classify and categorize neurotransmitters. In some cases, they simply divide into monoamines, amino acids, and peptides.

Neurotransmitters can also  divide into one of six types:
Amino acids

Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) acts as the main, inhibitory chemical relay of the body. GABA contributes to the vision, motor control and plays a role in the regulation of anxiety. Benzodiazepines, which help to cure anxiety, work by increasing the efficiency of GABA neurotransmitters, which can increase the feeling of relaxation and peace.


Glutamate is the most abundant neurotransmitter in the nervous system in which it plays a role in cognitive functions such as memory and learning. Excessive amounts of glutamate can cause excitotoxicity resulting in cell death. This excitotoxicity causes the accumulation of glutamate connects with some diseases and brain damage, including Alzheimer’s disease, stroke, and seizures.



Oxytocin is both a hormone and a neurotransmitter. It produces from the hypothalamus and plays a role in social recognition, binding, and sexual reproduction. Synthetic oxytocin, such as Pitocin, usually use as an aid in delivery. Both oxytocin and Pitocin cause uterine contraction during delivery.


Endorphins are neurotransmitters that inhibit the transmission of pain signals and promote a sense of euphoria. These chemical transmitters produce naturally with the body in response to pain, but can also trigger with other activities such as aerobic exercise.




Epinephrine is considered to be both a hormone and a neurotransmitter. In general, adrenaline (adrenaline) is a stress hormone released by the adrenal system.

Norepinephrine is a neurotransmitter that plays an important role in vigilance and it involves in the reaction of the body or flight. Its role is to mobilize the body and brain to act in times of danger or stress. The levels of this neurotransmitter are usually the lowest during sleep and the highest during stress.


Histamine proceeds as a neurotransmitter in the brain and spinal cord. It plays a role in allergic reactions and it produces as part of the immune response to pathogens.


Dopamine plays an important role in coordinating body movements. Dopamine also participates in rewards, motivations, and supplements. Several types of addictive drugs increase the level of dopamine in the brain. Parkinson’s disease, which is a degenerative disease that causes tremors and movement anxiety disorders, is caused by the loss of neurons that generate dopamine in the brain.


Serotonin plays a necassary character in regulating and modulating mood, sleep, anxiety, sexuality, and appetite. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors usually referred to as SSRIs. The type of antidepressant usually prescribed for the treatment of depression, anxiety, panic disorder, and panic attacks. SSRIs work to balance serotonin levels by blocking serotonin reuptake in the brain, which can help improve mood and reduce feelings of anxiety.



Adenosine acts as a neuromodulator in the brain and it involves suppressing arousal and improving sleep.

Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) acts as a neurotransmitter in the central and peripheral nervous system. It plays a role in autonomic control, sensory transduction and communication with glial cells. Research suggests that it may also affect some neurological problems, including pain, injury and neurodegenerative disorders.



Nitric oxide plays a role in relieving smooth muscle, relaxing it to allow blood vessels to expand and to increase blood flow in certain areas of the body.

Carbon monoxide usually knows as colorless, odorless gas that can have toxic and potentially lethal effects when people exposed to high levels of the substance. However, it is also produced naturally by the body. It acts as a neurotransmitter that helps to modulate the body’s inflammatory response.



Acetylcholine is the only neurotransmitter in its class. Both in the central and peripheral nervous system, the main neurotransmitter connects with motor neurons.



How neurotransmitters function work

For neurons to be able to send messages throughout the body, they must be able to communicate with each other to transmit signals. However, neurons do not simply connect to each other.


At the end of each neuron has a small gap, which is the synapse, and to be able to communicate with the next cell, the signal must be able to cross this small space. This happens in a process called neurotransmission.



In most cases, the function of the neurotransmitter is released from the so-called axon end after reaching the action potential, in a place where neurons can transmit signals to each other. When the electrical signal reaches the end of the neuron, it releases the release of small bags called vesicles that contain neurotransmitters.


These bags pour their contents into the synapse, where the neurotransmitters then move through the aperture towards the neighboring cells. These cells contain receptors in which neurotransmitters can bind and cause changes in cells.


After release, the neurotransmitters function cuts through the synaptic cleft and joins the receptor site on another neuron, either by stimulating or inhibiting the receiving neuron depending on what the neurotransmitter is.


The neurotransmitters function act like a key, and the receptor site acts as a lock. To open specific locks, you need the correct key. If the neurotransmitter is skillful to work on the receptor site, it triggers changes in the receiving cell.


Sometimes neurotransmitters function can bind to receptors and cause the electrical signal to pass down the cell (stimulation). In other cases, the neurotransmitter can actually block the signal from continuing.


What happens to the neurotransmitter after work?

As soon as the neurotransmitter achieves its intended effect, its activity can be stopped by various mechanisms. It can be degraded or deactivated by enzymes may drift away from the receptor. It can be taken back through the axon of the neuron, which released it in a process known as reuptake.


Neurotransmitters play an important role in everyday life and functioning. Researchers do not yet know exactly how many neurotransmitters function exist, but over 100 chemical relays have been identified.


Synapse neuron understanding working in the human brain

Synapse neuron is basically electrical devices. There are many channels in the cell membrane (the boundary between the cell inside and outside) that allow the flow of positive or negative ions into and out of the cell.


Usually, the inside of the cell is more negative than outside; neurologists say that the inside is about -70 mV in relation to the outside, or that the potential of the resting cell membrane is -70 mV.


This membrane potential is not static. It keeps going up and down, depending mainly on the input data from the axons of other neurons. Some input data make the neuronal membrane potential more positive (or less negative, e.g. -70 mV to -65 mV), while others do the opposite.


They are appropriately referred to as excitatory and inhibitory because they promote or inhibit the generation of action potentials (the cause of some stimulatory signals, while others inhibit the fact that different types of neurons release various neurotransmitters, and the neurotransmitter used by the neuron determines its action).


synapse neuron

Functional potentials are the basic units of communication between neurons and occur when the sum of all excitation and inhibitory signals causes the potential of the neuron membrane to reach about -50 mV (see graph), the value called the functional potential threshold.


Neuroscientists often define the action potentials as “jumps” or say that the neuron “fired” the spike “or” conquered. “This term is a reference to the shape of the action potential recorded using a sensitive electric current.



Synapse neuron
Synapse neuron



Synapses: how neurons communicate with each other

Neurons talk to each other through synapses. When the action potential reaches the presynaptic terminal, it causes the release of the neurotransmitter from the neuron to the synaptic cleft, a 20-40 nm gap between the presynaptic axon and the post-synaptic dendrite (often the spine).


After passing through the synaptic cleft, the transmitter will attach to the neurotransmitter receptors on the postsynaptic side and depending on the released neurotransmitter (which is dependent on the type of neuron released), the specific positive (e.g. Na +, K +, Ca +) or negative ion (e.g. Cl-) will pass through the channels extending along the membrane.


Synapse neuron can be thought of as transforming an electrical signal (action potential) into a chemical signal in the form of nerve relay release, and then, after binding the relay to the postsynaptic receptor, switching the signal back to the electrical form, just as charged ions flow to or from the postsynaptic neuron.



Concepts and definitions

Axon – A long, thin structure in which functional potentials are generated, the transmission part of the neuron. After initiation, the action potentials move down the axons, causing the release of the neurotransmitter. Dendrit – Receiving part of the neuron.


Dendrites receive synaptic input signals from axons. The sum of dendritic input signals determining whether the neuron will trigger the action potential. Spinal column – small protrusions occurring on dendrites, which for many synapses constitute the place of post-synaptic contact.



Diaphragm potential synapse neuron

The electric potential in the neuronal cell membrane, which arises due to different distributions of positively and negatively charged ions inside and outside the cell. The value inside the cell is always determined from the outside. 70 mV means that the interior is 70 mV more negative than the external one (which is 0 mV).


Action potential – Short (~ 1 ms) electrical event usually generated in the axon that signals the neuron as “active”. The functional potential moves along the length of the axon and causes the release of the neurotransmitter in the synapse. The potential of the action and the resulting release of the transmitter allows the neurons to communicate with other neurons.


The neurotransmitter – a chemical released from the neuron as a result of the potential. The neurotransmitter travels through the synapse to stimulate or inhibit the target neuron. Distinct types of neurons utilize different neurotransmitters and therefore have different effects on their targets. Synapse neuron – A connection between the axon of one neuron and another dendrite through which two neurons communicate.