Coronary sinus function & structure of coronary sinus

The coronary sinus is a collection of veins, which connect to a large vessel that collects blood from the myocardium. It provides less oxygenated blood to the right atrium, as well as better and weaker veins. It occurs in all mammals, including humans.

 

The name comes from the Latin crown, which means the crown because this vessel forms a partial circle around the heart. The coronary sinus drains into the right atrium. The mouth of the coronary sinus, the opening between the inferior vena cava and the right atrioventricular or tricuspid valve.

 

It draws blood from the heart muscle and is protected by a semicircular fold of the lining of the ear mucus, the coronary sinus valve (or Thebesius valve).

 

 

coronary sinus function

The coronary sinus receives blood mainly from small, medium, large and oblique cardiac veins. He also receives blood from the left marginal vein and left vena cava of the ventricle. He drains into the right atrium.

 

coronary sinus function

 

In the coronary sinus function, the front veins of the heart do not flow down to the coronary sinus but flow directly into the right atrium. Some small veins, known as the smallest cardiac veins, flow directly to each of the four chambers of the heart.

 

The coronary sinus begins with the intersection of the great cardiac vein and oblique vein of the left atrium. The end of the great cardiac vein and coronary sinus mark with a Vieussens valve.

 

The coronary sinus function runs transversely in the left atrioventricular groove on the back of the heart. It is the distal part of the great cardiac vein supplying the right atrium.

 

The valve of the coronary sinus is located on the posterior. The inferior surface of the heart, medially to the lower opening of the vena cava. It is slightly higher than the partition of the tricuspid valve. The coronary sinus valve is also known as Thebes’ valve.

Aorta function & aorta descending, Aortic arch treatment

The aortic arch is part of the main artery that bends between the ascending and descending aorta. He leaves the heart and rises, then goes down to create a bow. The aorta distributes the blood from the left ventricle to the rest of the body.

 

Certain aortic complications may ultimately lead to blockage of blood vessels. These blockages restrict the flow of blood to the rest of the body, which can eventually lead to edema and even an aneurysm.




Aorta function & descending

The aorta comes from the left ventricle. It ends in the abdominal cavity, where it branches into two common iliac arteries. The aorta consists of five separate segments. The descending aorta begins with the aortic arch (where the loop passes through the heart to begin its descent).

 

Aorta function

 

It is divided into two segments: the chest and abdomen. The descending aorta (thoracic aorta) is located between the aortic arch and the diaphragm muscles below the ribs.




The starting point is on the left side of the circles. As he descends, he writhes around the vertebrae and ends up at the front. The diameter of the artery is 2.32 centimeters because It has six paired branches: bronchial arteries, mediastinal arteries, esophageal arteries, pericardial arteries, the artery of the upper arteries and intercostal arteries.

 

There are nine pairs of intercostal arteries. The right branches are longer than the left because the descending aorta (thoracic aorta) is on the left side of the circle. Through various branches, it delivers blood to the esophagus, lungs and chest area, including ribs and mammary glands.

 

 

Aortic arch

It is difficult for physicians to diagnose complications with the aortic arch before limiting blood vessels. Magnetic resonance imaging is one of the types of tests used by doctors to determine the occurrence of aortic complications.

 

Aorta function

 

This requires the use of magnetic fields for the production of heart images because echocardiography involves using sound waves to obtain images of the heart. Treatment of aortic arch complications include beta-blockers, quenching, ACE inhibitors, diet changes, and Dacron transplantation.

 

What is pineal gland and their major function

Szyszynka is a small pea-shaped gland in the brain. Its function is not fully understood. Researchers know that it produces and regulates certain hormones, including melatonin. Melatonin is best known for its role in regulating sleep patterns. Sleep patterns are also called circadian rhythms. Learn more about pineal gland function.

 

Szyszynka also plays a role in regulating the level of female hormones and can affect fertility and the menstrual cycle. This is partly due to the production of melatonin and its secretion through the pineal gland. The 2016 study suggests that melatonin may also help protect against cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis and hypertension. 


 

Pineal  gland function

 

 Pineal  gland and melatonin

If you have a sleep disorder, it may mean that the pineal gland function does not produce enough melatonin. Some alternative medicine doctors believe that you can detoxify and activate the pineal gland to improve sleep and open the third eye. However, there are no scientific studies confirming these claims.

 

One of the ways to control melatonin in the body is the use of melatonin supplements. Usually, they will make you feel tired. They can help you compensate for circadian rhythm if you travel to a different time zone or make a night shift. Supplements can also help you fall asleep faster.

 

For most people, supplements with a low dose of melatonin are safe for both short-term and long-term use. Typically, doses are in the range of 0.2 milligrams (mg) to 20 mg, but the appropriate dose is different for different people. Talk to your doctor to see if melatonin is right for you and find out which dose is the best.

 

 

Melatonin supplements can cause the following side effects:

drowsiness and drowsiness
grogginess in the morning
intense, vivid dreams
the slight increase in blood pressure
a slight decrease in body temperature
anxiety
confusion

If you are pregnant, trying to get pregnant or breastfeeding, talk to your doctor before using melatonin supplements. In addition, melatonin may interact with the following drugs and drug groups:


 

fluvoxamine (Luvox)
nifedipine (Adalat CC)
birth control pills
blood thinners, also known as anticoagulants
antidiabetic agents that lower blood sugar levels
immunosuppressive drugs that lower the activity of the immune system

 

 

Szyszynka and health of the cardiovascular system

In the review of 2016. Researchers have found evidence that melatonin produced by the pineal gland function can have a positive effect on the heart and blood pressure.

 

Chinchilla and female hormones

In this pineal gland function. There is some evidence that exposure to light and related levels of melatonin can affect the woman’s menstrual cycle. Reduced amounts of melatonin may also play a role in the development of irregular menstrual cycles. Research is limited and often outdated, so more recent research is needed.


pineal gland function
pineal gland function

Szyszynka and stabilization of mood

The size of the pineal gland may indicate the risk of some mood disorders. One study suggests that smaller volumes of the pineal gland function may increase the risk of schizophrenia and other mood disorders. Further research is needed to better understand the effect of pineal volume on mood disorders.

 

Chinchilla and cancer

Some studies suggest that there may be a relationship between the impaired function of the pineal gland and the risk of cancer. Recent studies in rats have shown that a decrease in the pineal gland function as a result of excessive exposure to light has led to cell damage and an increased risk of colon cancer.


 

Another study found evidence that melatonin used in traditional treatment methods can improve the prognosis for people with cancer. This can be especially true for people with more advanced cancers. It is also not clear what dosage may be appropriate as adjuvant therapy.

 

Other pineal gland function

If the pineal gland is weakened, it can lead to hormonal imbalance, which can affect other systems in your body. In addition, because melatonin interacts with female hormones, complications can affect the menstrual cycle and fertility.

 

Szyszynka is located near many other important structures and has a strong effect on blood and other fluids. If you develop a pineal tumor, it can affect many other things in your body. Some early signs of cancer include:

convulsions, disturbances in memory, headaches, nausea
damage in vision and other senses

Talk to your doctor if you have a sleep disorder or if you want to learn more about taking melatonin supplements.





Major function of the Medulla oblongata

The medulla oblongata is in the brainstem, before the cerebellum. It is a conical, neuronal (nerve cell) mass in the back brain that controls many autonomic (involuntary) functions. The main medulla oblongata function of the hill is the processing of information into and from the spinal cord and cerebellum.

 

Medulla oblongata helps regulate breathing, the work of the heart and blood vessels, digestion, sneezing and swallowing. This part of the brain is the center of respiration and circulation.

 

Sensory and motor neurons (nerve cells) from the forebrain and midbrain travel through the core. Medulla oblongata function receives blood supply from several arteries, including the anterior spinal artery, posterior cerebral artery and direct branch of the vertebral artery.

 

 It helps in the transmission of messages between the spinal cord and various sections of the brain. It is responsible for controlling various autonomic functions in the body, such as digestion, blood vessel function, blood vessel function, breathing, sneezing and swallowing.


 

 

Medulla oblongata function

 following medulla oblongata function performs in the body:

It controls the autonomic nervous system (ANS control) – Put simply, the automated nervous system automatically responds to different situations when you need to think and react.

 

Regulates the dilation of blood vessels to reduce or increase oxygen flow and respond to heart functions.

It regulates the digestive system and maintains levels of digestion in the body.

From coughing, sneezing, to disperse foreign particles from the nose, it regulates them all.

 

The medulla oblongata is also responsible for maintaining coordination between different body movements.

It even controls the respiratory and cardiovascular activities of the body.

It takes care of blood pressure, regulates the heart rate and checks the respiratory rate.

All types of involuntary reflexes, such as sneezing, swallowing and gag reflex are controlled and regulated by Medulla Oblongata.

It also controls voluntary body movements. There are many nerves that are necessary for the head, arm, digestion of food and the movement of the mouth. Using the extended core, you can send sensory messages to the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system.

medulla oblongata function
medulla oblongata function

 

Other medulla oblongata function

Some of the features of the extended core are as follows:

Median Fissures medulla function- These are shallow coppice along the back and front areas of the core.
Pyramid – These are two round masses located on the opposite areas of the front central slit.
Olive – These are conjugated oval structures on the core surface, never containing fibers connecting the core to the cerebellum and the bridge. Fasciculus Gracilis – a bundle of nerve fibers extends to the spinal cord’s core.


Leg pain in kids Majors causes and symptoms -Treatment

Many things can cause leg pain in kids. Too much physical activity or excessive use may cause muscle contraction (or horse Charley). Your child may get leg cramps because he does not consume a balanced diet that has enough potassium, calcium and other minerals. If your child does not drink enough fluids or takes certain medications, he may feel leg cramps.

 

 

Major Causes leg pain in kids

 Muscle spasms (cramps) and tense muscles (abuse) are responsible for most lower limb pains.
Short pains (from 1 to 15 minutes) are often caused by muscle cramps (cramps). The muscles of the feet or calves are particularly susceptible to spasms that occur during sports.

 

Foot or leg cramps can also wake your baby out of sleep. Muscle cramps that occur during hard work or playing sports are called hot cramps. They often react to additional liquids and salt.


 

 

Muscle Overuse

Persistent leg pain in kids often comes from hard work or sports. Examples are running or jumping too much. This type of pain can last several hours or up to 7 days. Muscle pain may also result from a forgotten injury that occurred the previous day.

 

 

Growing pains

10% of healthy children have harmless leg pain in kids that arises and disappears. They are often called increasing pain (although they have nothing to do with growth). The pain usually increases in the muscles of the calves or thighs. They usually appear on both sides, not on one side. They occur late in the day. Most likely they are caused by running or playing. They usually last between 10 and 30 minutes.

 

 

Osgood Schlatter’s disease

Swelling and bone tenderness (tibia) just below the kneecap. The patella tendon attaches to this bone. Caused by an excessive jump or running. The largest age is young teenagers. Harmless and will go away in 1 to 2 years.

 

 

Viral infections.

Muscle pains in both legs are common in the case of viral diseases, especially influenza.
Serious reasons. Fractures, deep vein thrombosis (a blood clot in the leg). In addition, neuritis (inflammation of the nerves) and arthritis (arthritis).


 

 

Septic arthritis (serious).

Bacterial infection of any joint space is an emergency. Symptoms include severe joint pain, joint stiffness, and high fever. Toxic synovitis of the hip is a harmless condition. It can imitate septic arthritis. Symptoms include flaccidity, moderate pain and usually no fever. Toxic synovitis usually occurs in young children after too high a stroke.

 

The scale of pain

Mild: Your child is in pain and tells you about it. But the pain does not stop your child from normal activities. School, play and sleep are not changed. Moderate: pain prevents the child from performing normal activities. He can wake him from sleep. Severe: Pain is very bad. It prevents the child from performing all normal activities.

 

 

How to find out if your child is getting more and more pain

Laboratory tests and x-ray images will not help the doctor diagnose increasing pain, although imaging can help to rule out other, more serious diseases. “This is a clinical diagnosis that appears after visiting the office and discussing with the child and the parent,”

 

The severity and frequency of the growing pains are different. They can range from a sense of slight pain intense muscular contraction. But there are typical factors you can expect:

Occur at night or in the evening.
Your child probably feels pain in both legs or hands (although the pain in one arm or leg is possible).
The pain almost always involves the legs. If the pain is in his arms, he usually has pain in his legs.
They are intense enough to wake up your child.




leg pain in kids
leg pain in kids

When to rule out growing pains
There is no “typical” case of growing pains. But there are some symptoms you will not notice in this diagnosis, says Dr. Weinberger. The next condition probably works if:

The pain is permanent and continues to worsen
Your child’s pain persists during the day
The leg pain in kids is clearly around the joints, which is manifested by redness, swelling or stiffness
Pain makes your child is not active.
If you notice any of these symptoms, you should contact your pediatrician so that he can assess your child’s condition.

 

 

How can you help the growing pains of your child?

1. Think carefully before giving painkillers.

When your child wakes up in pain, it is tempting to reach for a painkiller in children. Doctors warn, however, that in most cases painkillers will not work fast enough to help with the pain.

 

However, he notes that ibuprofen and other over-the-counter painkillers can help if your child often has episodes several evenings after himself. In this case, the doctor may recommend giving a painkiller before going to bed after the first episode.

 

You may notice that your child is more offended or more tired than usual. Sometimes the pain can strike when your child has a particularly active day.

Your doctor may suggest treatment at bedtime when you notice signs of an upcoming episode – especially if your child is experiencing serious growing pains.

Cerebellum function & Disorders

The cerebellum is located behind the upper part of the brain stem (where the spinal cord is in contact with the brain) and consists of two hemispheres (halves). It receives information from sensory systems, the spinal cord and other parts of the brain, and then regulates motor motions.

 

The cerebellum coordinates voluntary movements such as posture, balance, coordination, and speech, which results in smooth and balanced muscle activity. Read below for cerebellum function

 

 

Cerebellum function

The cerebellum is the area behind and at the bottom of the brain, behind the brainstem. The cerebellum function related to movement and coordination, including:




Keeping your balance: the cerebellum has special sensors that detect shifts in balance and movement. Sends signals to the body to adjust and move.

Coordination Movement: Most body movements require the coordination of many muscle groups. The cerebellum measures the time the muscles work so that the body can move smoothly.

Vision: the cerebellum coordinates the movements of the eyeballs.

Motor learning: the cerebellum helps the body learn movements that require training and refinement. For example, the cerebellum plays a role in learning to ride a bicycle or to play a musical instrument.

 

 

Other cerebellum function

Researchers believe that the cerebellum function plays a role in thinking, including language and mood. However, discoveries regarding these features have not yet been fully explored.

cerebellum function
cerebellum function

Prior to 1990, the cerebellum function was generally considered to be purely motoric, but newer discoveries undermined this view. Functional imaging studies have shown activation of the cerebellum in relation to language, attention and mental images; correlation studies showed interactions between the cerebellum and non-motor areas of the cerebral cortex; in people with lesions that appear to be limited to the cerebellum, various non-motor symptoms have been identified.

 

It is a relatively small part of the brain – about ten percent of the total mass but contains about half of the brain’s neurons, specialized cells that transmit information via electrical signals. The cerebellum function is not unique to people. Evolutionarily speaking, this is the older part of the brain. It occurs in animals that scientists think existed before humans. Damage to the cerebellum, although it does not cause paralysis or mental retardation, can lead to imbalance, slow movements, and shocks (shocks). Complex physical tasks would become unstable and would stop.




Disorders

As a result of a close relationship between the cerebellum and movement, the most common symptoms of cerebellum disorders are disturbances in muscle control.

Symptoms or signs include:

Lack of muscle control and coordination difficulties with walking and mobility indistinct speech or difficulty in speaking. Abnormal eye movements headaches There are many disorders of the cerebellum, including:

 

 Brain bleeding toxins
genetic abnormalities
infection
tumor ataxia

The main symptom of cerebellum dysfunction is ataxia.

Ataxia is a loss of muscle coordination and control. A basic problem with the cerebellum, such as a virus or brain tumor, can cause these symptoms. Loss of coordination is often the first sign of ataxia, and speech problems soon follow.

 

 Tumor in the cerebellum

Tumors are abnormal cells that can grow in the brain or migrate from another part of the body. These tumors can be benign and not spread through the body. Malignant neoplasms grow and spread, leading to cancer.

The symptoms of a tumor in the cerebellum include:

 headache
vomiting without nausea
ataxia
difficulties with coordination

Diagnosis and treatment will vary depending on your age, general health, the course of the disease, prospects and other factors.


Pons function & Roles | (Major) function of the pons

Our brain is absolutely unbelievable and ultimately makes human. All parts of the brain are extremely important, but Pons stands out a bit more than some other parts. Check out this guide to learn everything about pons function.

Pons function

Temporal lobe: this lobe is associated with hearing, speech, memory and also has a part of the emotions
Occipital lobe: this lobe is responsible for vision.

The frontal lobe: involved in emotions, reasoning, movement, judgment, and planning.

Parietal lobe: associated with movement, recognition, feeling, language and even temperature.


Thalamus: the hill receives sensory information, which then sends to the cerebral cortex. Think of it as a relay station.

Cerebrum: consists of different parts, responsible for learning, memory, language, sensory processing, smell, and movement.

Hypertal: controls body temperature, hunger, thirst, emotions, and sleep.

Tegmentum: involved in motor movement and control movements.

Tectum: tectum is involved in auditory and visual functions.

Cerebellum: responsible for movement and coordination.

Medulla oblongata: in addition to the responsibility for why alligators are so broken, the core oblongata controls breathing, digestion, sneezing, swallowing and heart activity.

Every single part of the brain is important and as you can see, everyone works together to ensure survival. Pons is another very important part of the brain. Let’s get it.

 

 

 Role and pons function

Role 1: the Relay station

The location of Pons makes it an excellent relay station between the extended core and the hill. Pons is located on the highest part of the brainstem, which means it is part of what connects the brainstem to the brain. Because of its location, it is part of what passes messages from the bark to the cerebellum (which is responsible for movement).




Role 2: the Starting point of the nerve

Pons function also serves as a starting point for many different nerves. These nerves are the trigeminal nerve, the subordinate nerve, the facial nerve, and the vestibulocochlear nerve. Let’s analyze what all these nerves are and what they do.

 

Trigeminal nerve (CN V): This nerve is responsible for the motor function and facial sensation
Motor functions include chewing. It is the largest cranial nerve and branches to three other nerves. Ophthalmic nerve, mandibular nerve, and raw nerve. Nerve Abducens (CN VI): This nerve is responsible for looking outside. It is formed at the crossroads of the core and pons function. Think of it as the nerve is responsible for giving the lateral eye.

 

 

The facial nerve (CN VII): one of the most important facial nerves, the nerve responsible for facial expression, taste and language control Controls all muscles involved in the facial expression.
Vestibulocochlear nerve (CN VIII): This is another important nerve because it deals with sound and balance.

pons function
Transmits the sound from the ear
He also deals with the balance from the inner ear
It consists of the cochlear nerve and the vestibular nerve

As you can see, these are very important nerves that control almost everything that has to do with our face.

Role 3: Involuntary pons function

Finally, Pons function controls the involuntary functions of the body. Pons function controls the intensity and frequency of breathing and also controls our cycle of sleep and consciousness.

 

Many researchers believe that Pons function plays an important role in REM sleep in which dreams occur. By studying and conducting experiments, scientists believe that dreams actually come from Pons, so the next time you have an angry or strange dream, you blame your Pons for action.

 

Can we live without Pons?

While people can live without the gall bladder, lungs and even kidneys, there are certain organs and parts of our body without which we can not live. Pons is one of those parts without which we can not live. If you removed anything above the brainstem, your body could theoretically survive, but if anything below the brainstem has disappeared, you would not be able to survive.

 

The brainstem is what “holds” all our basic functions, such as breathing, for which Pons is responsible. It transmits messages in the brain and controls too many important vital functions that we need as people. If these injuries had something to do with the brainstem, they would die rather quickly, since this stem is so important.


Midbrain function & Structures | Major function midbrain

The midbrain is a part of the brainstem connecting the upper brain and forebrains. Many nerves run through the midbrains that connect the brain to the cerebellum and other posterior brain structures.

 

The midbrain function is to support the movement, as well as visual and auditory processing. Damage to some areas of the midbrain is associated with the development of Parkinson’s disease.

Midbrain function

The midbrain function includes:

Controlling the view response,
Eye movement,
Pupil dilation,
Regulate muscle movement,
Hearing,

 

Location

midbrain function is the most rostral part of the brainstem. It is located between the forebrain and hindbrain.

 

structures

Many structures are located in the midbrain including the tegmentum, cerebral stalk, black matter, crus cerebri and cranial nerves (holomorphic and pale-faced). Tectum consists of rounded convexities called colliculi, which are involved in visual and hearing processes.


 

 

The cerebral skeleton is a bundle of nerve fibers that connect the forebrains and hindbrain. The cerebral skeleton contains tegmentum (forms the basis of the midbrain) and crus cerebri (nerve lines that connect the brain with the cerebellum).

 

The substantia nigra has neural connections to the frontal lobes. Its areas of the brain involved in the midbrain function. Cells in the substantia nigra also produce dopamine, a chemical messenger that helps to coordinate muscle movements.

 

midbrain function

Disease:

Neurodegeneration of nerve cells in the substantia nigra reduces dopamine production because Significant loss of dopamine levels (60-80%) can cause the development of Parkinson’s disease. Parkinson’s disease is a disorder of the nervous system that causes loss of control and motor coordination. Symptoms include tremors, slowness of movement, muscle stiffness, and balance problems.

 

 

Interstitial structures

The midbrains form three main structures: the cerebral stalk (pedicel denoting the “foot” or “base” of the brain), the corpora Quadri Gemina (which means “all fours” because it has four mounds or hill-like structures), and the cerebral aqueduct, which is the dividing canal both structures.

 

Now that we know the structures, let us take a moment to look at them individually so that we can better understand their unique roles.




Cerebral Szypułka

The main function of the cerebral stalk is the transmission of motor signals from the brain to the brainstem because It consists of a thick bundle of nerve fibers, called corticospinal tracts, that carry motor signals from the brain to the muscles.

 

Do not be fooled; the cerebral stalk is not just a “truck driver”, carrying its “load” of motor signals from one place to another; it also communicates with the cerebellum and thus helps to fine tune motor motions.

 

 

It is important to remember that the cerebellum, not being part of the midbrain, communicates with the cerebral stalks through something called the red nucleus.

 

Proprioception is a sense of your own body in the environment, which means that even with blindfolded eyes, you can feel things like your hands, and feet that are against each other or when you’re upside down or on the right.

 

This is a pretty cool feature and in its absence. We would be really helpless and completely devoid of grace in our environment. If the motor signals come straight from our brains, without going through the “cleansing” mid-brains, one would say goodbye to dance competitions, because we would all be really horrible!


 

Brainstem function Location & structures| Main function

The brain stem is the area of the brain that connects the brain to the spinal cord. It consists of the midbrain, medulla, and bridge. Motor and sensory neurons travel through the brainstem to allow signals to be transmitted between the brain and the spinal cord. Most cranial nerves are in the brainstem. Read below for brainstem function.

 

 

The brainstem coordinates engine control signals sent from the brain to the body. This region of the brain also controls the life supporting the autonomic functions of the peripheral nervous system.

 

The fourth cerebral ventricle is located in the brainstem, posterior to the bridge and the medulla. This chamber filled with cerebrospinal fluid is continuous with the brain aqueduct and the central channel of the spinal cord.


 

brainstem function

The brainstem function controls several important functions of the body, including:

Vigilance,
Stimulation,
Respiratory,
Control of blood pressure,
Digestion,
Pulse,

 

Other autonomic brainstem function

Information on relays between peripheral nerves and the spinal cord and upper parts of the brain. In addition to connecting the brain and the spinal cord, the brainstem also connects the brain with the cerebellum. The cerebellum is important for the regulation of functions such as the coordination of movements, balance, balance and muscle tension.

 

It is located above the brainstem and under the occipital lobes of the cerebral cortex. Nerve patterns that travel through the brainstem relay signals from the cerebellum to the areas of the cerebral cortex that are involved in motor control. This allows the coordination of minor motor motions needed during activities such as walking or playing video games.

brainstem function
brainstem function
Location

The direction of the brain stem is at the junction of the brain and spine. It is earlier than the cerebellum.


 

Brain structures

The brain stem consists of the midbrain and part of the back of the brain, in particular of the sternum and the cord. The main function of the midbrain is to connect the three main areas of the brain: forebrain, midbrain, and hindbrain.

 

The main midbrain structures include the tectum and cerebral stalk. Tectum consists of rounded convexities of the brain matter that are involved in visual and auditory reflexes. The peduncle consists of large bundles of nerve fibers that connect the forebrain to the posterior brain.

 

The sacral muscle consists of two sub-regions called pulp and grinder because Metencalon consists of bridges and cerebellum. Pons helps in regulating breathing, as well as sleep and arousal states. The cerebellum transmits information between the muscles and the brain.

 

Mieleniec consists of the core oblongata and the function of connecting the spinal cord with the higher areas of the brain. Medulla also helps regulate autonomic functions, such as breathing and blood pressure.

 

 

Brain injury

Damage to the brain stem caused by injury or stroke can lead to difficulties with mobility and motor coordination. Activities such as walking, writing, and eating become difficult and a person may need lifelong treatment.   A stroke can cause breathing problems, heart rate, hearing, and speech. It can also cause hand and leg contusion as well as numbness in the body or on one side of the body.


Myelin sheath function & (Major) Causes,Symptoms

The myelin sheath function is to protect and isolate the axons and improve their transmission of electrical impulses. If myelin is damaged, the transmission of these impulses is slowed down, which is observed in severe neurological conditions, such as multiple sclerosis. Read on more about myelin sheath function.

 

myelin sheath function

Neurons can be myelinated – they are surrounded by myelin or non-myelinated casings because they are not surrounded by the myelin sheath.

 

Myelin sheath function consists of Schwann cells and there are vaginal gaps known as Ranvier nodes.


 

The main myelin sheath function is:

It acts as an electrical insulator for the neuron – it prevents the penetration of electrical impulses through the shield.

 

In myelin sheath function, The sheath prevents ion migration to or from the neuron / prevents depolarization.

Accelerates the transmission of the electrical impulse in the neuron – impulses cannot pass through the shield (the shield acts as an electrical insulator), instead, the pulses “jump” from the gap in the myelin sheath to another gap (it jumps from one Ranvier node to another).

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myelin sheath causes

Damaged nerve signals can cause debilitating symptoms, including:

problems with walking and coordination, weak muscles, fatigue, Sight problems

MS affects everyone differently. The seriousness of the illness and the types of symptoms vary from person to person. The exact cause of MS is unknown. However, scientists accept that four factors may play a role in the development of the disease.

 

Cause 1: The immune system

Multiple sclerosis is considered to be an immune-mediated disease: the immune system is malfunctioning and attacks the CNS. 


 

Research is underway on which immune cells are responsible for the attack. Researchers are trying to discover what causes these cells to attack. They also look for methods to control or stop the progression of the disease.

 

 

Cause 2: Genetics

Some genes are thought to play a role in MS. Your chance for developing MS is slightly higher if a close relative, such as a parent or sibling, gets ill.

Researchers believe that people with multiple sclerosis are born with a genetic susceptibility to respond to certain (unknown) environmental factors.

 

 

Cause 3: Environment

Epidemiologists have observed an increased pattern of MS cases in countries farthest from the equator. This connection causes some to believe that vitamin D may play a role.

Vitamin D is beneficial for the immune system. People living near the equator are exposed to more sunlight. As an outcome, their bodies produce more vitamin D.

 

 

Cause 4: Infection

Researchers are considering the possibility that viruses and bacteria can cause multiple sclerosis. Viruses cause myelin inflammation and breakdown (so-called demyelination). Therefore, it is possible that the virus can trigger MS. Several viruses and bacteria are tested to determine if they are involved in the development of MS. They include:

measles virus
human herpes-6 virus (HHV-6)
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)

 

 

The symptoms of MS

There are many triggers that people with MS should avoid.

Tension

Stress can cause and worsen MS symptoms. Practices that help reduce stress and manage stress can be helpful for people with multiple sclerosis. Add to relaxing rituals such as yoga and meditation.

Smoking

Cigarette smoke can contribute to the progress of MS. If you are a smoker, look at the effective methods of quitting smoking. Avoid using passive smoking.

Heat

Not everyone can see the difference in symptoms because of heat, but avoid direct sun or hot tubs if you notice that you are responding to them.

 

Bow

There are several ways that medications can make symptoms worse. If you are taking many medications and are having a bad effect, talk to your doctor about which medications are necessary and which you can stop.

Some people stop taking medication for MS because they have too many side effects or think they are not effective. However, these drugs are necessary to prevent relapse and new changes, so it is important to stay with them.

 

 

No sleep

Fatigue is a common symptom of MS. If you do not fall asleep enough, it can reduce your energy even more.

infections
From urinary tract infections to colds or flu, infections can make your symptoms worse. In fact, infections cause about one-third of all exacerbations of MS symptoms, according to the Cleveland Clinic.

 

 

MS treatment

Although there is no cure for MS, there are treatment options that help to cope with MS symptoms.

The most commonly used categories of treatment are corticosteroids, such as oral prednisone and intravenous methylprednisolone, which reduce nerve inflammation.

 

 

In cases that do not respond to steroids, some doctors recommend exchanging plasma.

 In the case of relapsing-remitting MS, several disease-modifying therapies are available, but all of them involve significant health risks. Talk to your doctor about whether they are appropriate for you.