How Palliative and Hospice Care Achieve Holistic Healthcare

Illnesses do not only weaken the body—but they also weaken one’s mind and morale. This is why the healthcare team aims to provide holistic treatment as much as possible. While curative treatment is of major importance, palliative and hospice care are facets of healthcare that should be given when needed. 

 

 

Defining Wellness

Personal health goes beyond the physical body. To achieve optimal wellness, a person should tap into the five main aspects of health. These include physical, emotional, spiritual, intellectual, and social. 

 

To be physically healthy, it’s important to stay active, eat a balanced meal, and get eight hours of sleep every night. To tap into the other health aspects, it’s advisable to learn how to manage stress. One should also keep a positive attitude despite the existence of problems. 

The latter is what palliative and hospice care aim to achieve. 

 

 

Improving the Quality of Life 

Serious illnesses—like cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or Parkinson’s—exhibit symptoms and stress that add on to a patient’s suffering. These symptoms—pain, shortness of breath, fatigue, and depression—can cause distress and psychologically affect a person. One may even lose morale and the will to live due to their condition. 

 

Palliative care helps patients gain the strength and motivation to go on with daily life. Health workers aim to relieve pain and other symptoms that cause discomfort by giving basic medical treatment. This includes administering the necessary drugs to treat or control the symptoms. 

 

More importantly, palliative care keeps one’s psychological and spiritual aspects healthy. Health workers serve as a support system that helps patients and their families to cope with the illness. By talking and listening, the palliative care team will deeply explore a patient’s goals. This allows them to provide a more personalized treatment. 

 

 

End-of-Life Treatment 

In some cases, critical illnesses may reject medications. When a patient’s chances of survival are limited to six months or less, doctors will suggest getting hospice care. Like palliative care, hospice care aims to relieve discomfort rather than treating the illness. But unlike palliative care, all curative treatment stops when a patient is receiving hospice. 

 

For example, a person with lung cancer may be given oxygen through an oxygen sensor to relieve shortness of breath. However, doctors will stop delivering medications to treat cancer. 

 

The hospice team works with doctors, nurses, and social workers in delivering the best end-of-life care possible. It aims to deliver care that meets the unique needs of a patient. 

 

Patients with life-limiting conditions often want the choice of how they are going to spend the rest of their lives. And no one should spend it suffering and restrained by their symptoms. With palliative and hospice care, patients will be able to receive physical and emotional comfort. Meanwhile, their families will be able to receive support as they go through their own personal suffering as well. The goal is for everyone to enjoy living their lives to the fullest—free from the bonds of disease. 

 

Know more about how palliative and hospice care differ from each other through this interesting infographic below. 

 

written by:  Tara Desquitado

Types of capillaries and their functions

The walls of the capillaries are so thin that the molecules can diffuse through the walls of the capillaries to the membranes of the cells that surround the capillaries.

 

The pulmonary capillaries allow oxygen to diffuse into the blood, while carbon dioxide is able to diffuse outward into the lungs. The arteries and veins have thick walls that do not allow the cells or molecules of the blood to spread in the body cavities,




The capillaries

Capillaries are very small blood vessels, so small that a single red blood cell can barely pass through them. They help to connect your arteries and veins, in addition to facilitating the exchange of certain elements between the blood and the tissues.

 

 The tissues are very active, such as muscles, liver, and kidneys, have a large number of capillaries. Metabolically less active tissues, like certain types of connective tissue, do not have as many.

 

 

Types of capillaries

Continuous capillaries

These are the most common types of capillaries. They contain small gaps between their endothelial cells that allow the passage of things like gases, water, sugar (glucose) and some hormones. However, continuous capillaries in the brain are an exception.

 

These capillaries are part of the blood-brain barrier. It helps protect your brain by allowing only the most essential nutrients to cross. That is why the continuous capillaries in this area do not have spaces between the endothelial cells, and the surrounding basement membrane is also thicker.

 

 

Types of capillaries

 

Fenestrated capillaries

Fenestrated capillaries are more “leaky” than continuous capillaries. They contain small pores, in addition to small gaps between the cells, in their walls that allow the exchange of larger molecules. This type of capillary is found in areas that require a lot of exchange between blood and tissues.

 

Examples of these areas include The small intestine, where nutrients absorb from food. The kidneys, where the waste products filtered from the blood.




Sinusoid capillaries

These are the rarest and “most important” capillaries. Sinusoid capillaries allow the exchange of large molecules, including cells. They can do this because they have many larger holes in their capillary wall, in addition to pores and small holes. The surrounding basement membrane is also imperfect with openings in many locations.

 

These types of capillaries are found in certain tissues, including those in your liver, spleen, and bone marrow. For example, in your bone marrow, these capillaries allow newly produced blood cells to enter the bloodstream and begin to circulate.

 

 

What are the functions of the capillaries?

The capillaries connect the arterial system, which includes the blood vessels that carry blood from your heart to your venous system. Your venous system includes the blood vessels that carry blood back to your heart.

 

The exchange of oxygen, nutrients, and waste between the blood and tissues also occurs in their capillaries. This happens through two processes:

 

Passive diffusion, This is the movement of a substance from an area of ​​greater concentration to an area of ​​lower concentration.

Pinocytosis, This refers to the process through which the cells in your body take small molecules, such as fats and proteins.

 

The walls of the capillaries are formed by a layer of thin cells. It called the endothelium that is surrounded by another thin layer called the basement membrane.

 

Its one-layer endothelial composition, which varies between distinct types of capillaries, and the surrounding basement membrane makes capillaries a little more “leaky” than other types of blood vessels.

 

This allows oxygen and other molecules to reach the cells of your body more easily. In addition, the white blood cells of your immune system can use capillaries to reach sites of infection or other inflammatory damage.

Phalanges function and Types of Proximal Phalanges

The type of bones that make up the skeleton of digits. The fingers of the body are known primarily as the bones of the phalanges. The human body has a total of fifty-six phalanges, with three phalanges for each finger and toe, except for two phalanges for the thumb and large toes.

 

The fingers are usually connected to each other on hinged interphalangeal joints that serve to extend. In many cases, the phalangeal bones are connected to each other.

 

 

The Phalanges function

Most Phalanges function is made using digits. These are flexible due to the structure of the phalanges in the way they are – whether by creating tools, grasping things, or creating things that facilitate human love in the long run. The sticks support the basic structure of numbers, creating a closely related structure for the smooth function of the engine and the precision of the numbers.

 


They are considered “contractors” of the task to which our brain directs them. This is the reason why they are considered to be of paramount importance to the evolutionary process of hominids.

 

Phalanges function

 

Types of Proximal Phalanges

These are the original bones of the phalanges because it connects the structure forming a number with the limb bones. The shape of the proximal phalanges in humans is wide and has a concave surface close to the hand. It connects the base of the limb with the metacarpophalangeal joint. It is easier to move around the claws and ankles.

 

 

Intermediate fingers

As the name suggests, these types of phalanges have an intermediate location and size compared to other phalange bones. They are also not present in every digit. For example, intermediate fingers are not found in the thumbs and big toes, hence it is said that their digital formula is 2. Their position is mainly between proximal and distal phalanges because it is connected to two interphalangeal joints.

 

 

Sticks Origin

Because the fingers are an integral part of our skeletal system, they are present in the body with the mesodermal origin and live mainly in nature. The baby has about three hundred and five bones, which have been reduced to only two hundred and six in adulthood because of connections and attachments that arise during growth, from which the fingers are never connected after birth, so they do not reduce their number.

 

 

The importance of phalanx phalanges

Normal accidents or injuries that can cause temporary or permanent impairment in these areas. Common injuries of proximal phalanges include fractures associated with joining limbs or moving joint joints. They are most often treated with a plaster Paris bandage in order to obtain stability and restore the original state of bone structures and connections and are treated with screws where it is necessary.

 

The usual screw-in operations involve the use of anesthetics and painkillers to reduce pain in the damaged area. The area is usually suspended for immobilization until the original alignment of the said bone is fully restored.

Flexor digitorum profundus and their functions, structure

The flexor digitorum profundus is a muscle of the arm of humans that flexes the fingers (also known as digits). It considers an external hand muscle that is running on the hand while the abdominal muscle place in the forearm. Together with the deep layer of ventral aqueduct muscles.  The muscle is called from the Latin, meaning “deep bender of the fingers.

 

 

flexor digitorum profundus functions

flexor digitorum profundus is a flexor of the wrist (mid carpal), metacarpophalangeal and interphalangeal joints. The lumbricals of hand, the essential muscles of the hand, attach to the tendon of the profundus bent digitorum. Therefore, flexural muscle use to assist lumbrical muscles in their function as extensors of interphalangeal joints.




As the lumbrical muscles emanating from the palm side of the hand and attach to the back aponeurosis. The force transfer from the flexor muscle to the fingers like as flex the metacarpophalangeal joints.

 

flexor digitorum profundus

 

The voltage generated by the profundus digitorum bent over the distal joints is more determined by the hand position. The flexibility of the wrist causes muscle contraction at this point, thus reducing the tension that can be produced distally. Fingers cannot be fully flexed if the wrist is completely flexible.

 

 

flexor digitorum profundus structure

Flexible profundus digitorum that originates from 3/4 top of the medial front surfaces of the beard, interosseous membrane and deep fascia of the forearm.  Along with the dendrobium bent the area, it has long tendons that run along the arm through the carpal tunnel and attach to the thin side of the changing of the fingers.

 

Flexible digitorum profundus lies deep on the superficial, but it distinguishes more distally. Therefore, the tendons of the profundus go through the tendons of the superficial and eventually attach the distal phalanx. This is a perforation muscle. The joints of the hand arise from the technical side of the tendons.

 

 

Supply of nerves

flexor digitorum profundus is a composite muscle innervate from nerve interosseous front nerves and ulnar. The medial aspect of the muscle (flexing the fourth and fifth digits)  which provide by the ulnar nerve (C8, T1).

 

The lateral aspect (which flexes the number 2 and 3) innervate from the median nerve especially the interosseous front branch (C8, T1).
This is one of the two flexor muscles that does not supply exclusively from the median.

 

 

 Case study flexor digitorum profundus

A 30-year-old male, right-handed, was referred to a hand clinic because of an injury to his left ring finger at the level of the distal phalangeal area. This injury had occurred several days before during a training session in his karate class. The patient did not experience any pain or notice the injury at the time of the training session.

Only later, in the locker room, did he feel pain at the level of the distal joint. At first, he was made to believe that it was a mild sprain and decided not to seek medical attention until two days after the injury when the pain and inflammation had not diminished.

 


In the evaluation, the patient experienced pain in the DIP joint of his left ring finger, which was neurovascularly intact. A painful eminence of the body was palpable on the volar side of the distal phalanx, and there was no active flexion of the DIP joint.

 

The radiographs revealed a comminuted fracture of the base of the distal phalanx, with the displacement of the volar fragment at the approximate level of the A4 pulley. The need for surgery, risks and complications and convalescence was discussed, and surgery was scheduled two days later.

Carpal bones mnemonic and major functions

The bones of the carpal are eight small bones that form the wrist and that joins the hand with the forearm. In human anatomy, the main role of the carpal bone is to facilitate effective hand positioning.

 

In the tetrapods, the carpal is the only cluster of bones in the wrist between the radius and the elbow. The bones of the carpal do not belong to individual fingers, while the bones of the wrist. The carpal bones allow the wrist to move and rotate vertically.

 

 

Carpal bones mnemonic functions

There are four groups of ligaments in the wrist area:

Proper wrist ligaments that connect the ulna and radius of the wrist: ulnar and radial collateral ligaments; hand-dorsal palmar dorsal ligaments; and elbow ligaments palmar.

 


Ligaments of the intervertebral joints that connect the bones of the wrist: radial ligament of the wrist; dorsal, palmar and interosseous ligaments; and the ligaments of pisohamate.

 

carpal bones mnemonic
Carpal bones mnemonic

Ligaments of the wrist and metacarpal joints, which connect the wrist bones with the metacarpus bones: the ur between the patellar ligament and the palmar-dorsal ligaments.

 

Ligaments of the intervertebral joints that connect the metacarpal bones because of dorsal, and palmar metacarpal ligaments.

 

 

Eight wrist bones can be conceptually organized as two transverse rows or three longitudinal columns.

When considered as paired rows, each row forms an arc that is convex proximal and concave distal. On the palmar side, the wrist is concave and forms a wrist channel that is covered by the flexor retinaculum.

 

The proximal row (including scaphoid, lunacy, and triquetrum) connects to the radius and distal surfaces of the wrist, and therefore continuously adapts to these moving surfaces. In the proximal row, each wrist bone has little independent mobility.

 

For example, boat-likeness contributes to the stability of the metatarsus by articulating distally with the trapezoid and trapezium. In contrast, the distal order is stiffer when its transverse arch moves with the metacarpus.

Ossicles function & structure, ossicular movements

Bone cubes (also called ossicles) are three bones in the middle ear that belong to the smallest bones in the human body. They are used to transfer sounds from the air to a fluid-filled labyrinth (snail). Lack of hearing blocks would be moderate to severe hearing loss.

 

The term “ossicle” literally means “tiny bone”. Although the term may refer to any small bone in the entire body. It usually refers to the hammer, anvil, and stapes of the middle ear. Read below ossicles function.




ossicles function

When the sound waves vibrate the eardrum, it shifts the closest ossicular, the hammer malleus to which it is attached. Then hammer malleus transmits vibrations, through the anvil.  The stapes and thus eventually to the oval window membrane, which opening to the inner ear vestibule.

 

The sound moving in the air usually reflect in contact with the liquid medium, only about 1/30 of the sound energy moving in the air will transfer to the liquid. This is observed after a sudden cessation of the sound that occurs when the head is submerged under water.

 

Ossicles function

 

This is due to the causes that the comparative incompressibility of a liquid is a resistance to the strength of sound waves traveling in the air. Bone cubes give a mechanical advantage to the barrel by lever action and reduction of the force distribution area.

 

The resulting vibrations would be much weaker if the sound waves transfer directly from the outer ear to the oval window. This reduction in the area of force application allows a sufficiently high-pressure increase to transfer most of the sound energy to the liquid.

 

The increased pressure will compress the fluid in the cochlea and transmit the stimulus. Thus, the presence of ossicles to focus the vibration strength improves the sensitivity to sound and is a form of impedance matching.

 

ossicular movements

However, the range of ossicular movements control (and narrowed) from two attach muscles (timpani tensor and stapedius). These muscles are thought to shrink to suppress auditory oscillations to protect the inner ear from excessively noisy noise and to give better frequency resolution at higher frequencies by reducing low-frequency transmission. These muscles are more developed in bats and serve to block outgoing bats screaming during echolocation.




Ossicles structure

The bone cubes are in order from the eardrum to the inner ear (from superficial to deep). The malleus, incus, and stapes, terms which in Latin translate as “hammer, anvil, and stirrup”.

 

Ossicles function

 

Malleus connects with the coil through the heel-dorsal joint. It is attached to the eardrum (tympanic membrane) from which the vibratory movement of sound pressure passes. Incus connect with both other bones.

 

The staple connects to the urethra with arthritic-joints. It attaches to the fenestra window membrane, so oval or elliptic window or an opening between the middle ear and the inner ear vestibule. It is the tiny bone in the body.

Main function of the heart & structure of arota

The main function of the heart is to pump the blood into the lungs so that it is saturated with oxygen and then pump it into the body to supply the cells with oxygen. The heart, along with the blood vessels, forms the cardiovascular system.

 

 

Other Main function of the heart

#Take blood from vena-cava (both higher and worse). #Pumping through the pulmonary artery into the lungs.  *After the lungs oxygenate the received blood, It is directed to the heart through the pulmonary vein.
*The heart then pumps the oxygenated blood for the whole body through the aorta.


The deoxygenated blood is received by the heart from the body through an inferior main vein. The highest vena-cava carries deoxygenated blood from the upper region and the inferior main vein (which is larger than the higher one) from the lower part of the body.

 

Main function of the heart

 

Blood from the main cava vein is picked up by the right atria. The right vestibule also receives blood from the coronary sinus (vessels of the heart itself).

 

This blood (deoxygenated) flows into the right ventricle. The hole between right auric and ventilated is guarded by a double-sided gate valve called mitral valve. Now the blood from the right ventricle is pumped to the lungs (for oxygenation) through the pulmonary artery.

 

After oxygenation of the blood in the lungs, it is again taken up by the heart in the left atrium through the pulmonary vein. Now the blood from the left atrium flows into the left ventricle.

 

The opening of the left atrium and the ventricle is guarded by a tricuspid valve. The left ventricle now contains oxygenated blood pumped through the aorta and reaches all organs through the arteries.




structure and function

The structure and function of the heart, arteries, veins, and capillaries are essential for the functioning of the cardiovascular system. The general function of the circulatory system is to transport blood and lymph around the body.

 

Main function of the heart

 

In this way, it provides the body with oxygen and nutrients because it removes waste from the body, takes part in the regulation of body temperature and helps fight infections. In the cardiovascular system, which is the primary purpose of Pre-PDHPE, the structure and function of the heart, arteries, veins, and capillaries help to achieve this greater goal of the cardiovascular system.

pulmonary edema symptoms and Prevention of pulmonary edema

Pulmonary edema is a condition, which the lungs are filled with fluid. It is also known as pulmonary congestion, lung, and pulmonary embolism. When pulmonary edema occurs, the body tries to get enough oxygen and begins to have shortness of breath.

 

 

Symptoms of pulmonary edema

In the case of pulmonary edema, the body will have difficulty in obtaining oxygen. This is due to the amount of increased fluid in the lungs, which prevents oxygen from entering the bloodstream.


Symptoms may increase until treatment is applied. Symptoms depend on the type of pulmonary edema.

 

 

Long-lasting pulmonary edema

Symptoms of long-term pulmonary edema include: shortness of breath during physical activity Difficulty breathing while lying down wheezing waking up at night with a feeling of apnea that goes away when you sit down rapid weight gain, especially in the legs swelling in the lower body
fatigue.

pulmonary edema symptoms

 

High pulmonary edema

Pulmonary edema caused by altitude sickness or lack of enough oxygen in the air will have symptoms that include: headaches irregular, fast heartbeat shortness of breath after exercise and rest cough fever difficulties in walking uphill and on flat surfaces Get emergency help if these symptoms start to worsen. Do not go to the hospital.

 

 

Causes of pulmonary edema

Congestive heart failure, the most cause of pulmonary edema is congestive heart failure (CHF).


Heart failure occurs when the heart can no longer properly pump blood in the body. This creates pressure in the small blood vessels in the lungs, causing the fluid to leak from the vessels.

 

In a healthy body, the lungs take oxygen from the air you breathe and bring it into the bloodstream. But when the fluid fills your lungs, they can not enter oxygen into the bloodstream. It deprives the rest of the body of oxygen.

 

 

Treatment of pulmonary edema

Pulmonary edema is a serious condition that requires rapid treatment. Oxygen is the first line of treatment for this condition. Your healthcare team will support you and deliver 100% oxygen through an oxygen mask, nasal cannula or hypertensive mask.

 

Your doctor will also diagnose the cause of pulmonary edema and will recommend the appropriate treatment for the underlying cause. Depending on the condition and cause of pulmonary edema, your doctor may also provide:

 

Initial reducers, they help reduce the pressure of the fluid flowing into the heart and lungs. Diuretics also help to reduce this pressure, causing you to urinate, which eliminates fluid. Afterload reducers. These drugs dilate the blood vessels and exert pressure from the heart. Heart medicine.

 

They will control the pulse, reduce high blood pressure and reduce the pressure in the arteries and veins. Morphine. This drug is used to relieve anxiety and shortness of breath. But fewer doctors currently use morphine because of the risk. In severe cases, people with pulmonary edema may require intensive or critical care.

 

Some cases of pulmonary edema may require supportive care for breathing. The machine will provide oxygen under pressure to help more air escape into the lungs.

 

pulmonary edema symptoms

 

Sometimes this can be done with a mask or cannula, also called continuous positive pressure in the airways (CPAP). The doctor may need to insert the endotracheal tube or the respiratory tube into the throat and use mechanical ventilation.

 

 

Prevention of pulmonary edema

 

There is no way to completely prevent pulmonary edema. People at high risk should immediately seek help if symptoms of the disorder appear. The best way to prevent pulmonary edema is to take care of your health:

Get a vaccine against pneumonia. Get an influenza vaccine, especially if you have heart problems or are an elderly person.

Stay on diuretic after an episode of pulmonary edema to prevent a recurrence.

You can also reduce the risk of heart failure, the most common cause of pulmonary edema:

You should regularly visit a doctor. Do not smoke or use recreational drugs.
Regularly exercise, Eat healthy food,  Keep a normal weight

Ribosomes Function & Origin of ribosomes

Ribosomes are a cellular structure that produces a protein. The protein is needed for many cellular functions, such as repairing damage or managing chemical processes. Ribosomes can be found floating in the cytoplasm or attached to the endoplasmic reticulum.

The location of ribosomes in the cell determines the type of protein produced. If the ribosomes move freely within the cell, they will produce proteins that will be used in the cell itself. When the ribosomes are attached to the endoplasmic reticulum, they are referred to as a rough endoplasmic reticulum or an ER-like reticulum. The proteins produced on the raw ER are used for inside or outside the cell. Read below ribosomes function

 


Ribosomes functions

They accumulate amino acids, creating specific proteins, proteins are necessary for carrying out cellular activities.

In ribosomes function, The protein production process, deoxyribonucleic acid, produces mRNA in the DNA transcription process.

The genetic message of mRNA is translated into proteins during DNA translation.

In ribosomes function, Protein folding sequences during protein synthesis are defined in mRNA.

 

Ribosomes Function

 

mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and is transported to the cytoplasm for further protein synthesis.

 

In the cytoplasm, two ribosomal subunits are bound around mRNA polymers; the proteins are then synthesized by means of RNA transfer.
Proteins synthesized by ribosomes present in the cytoplasm are used in the cytoplasm itself. Proteins produced by bound ribosomes are transported out of the cell.

 

 

Ribosomes structures

It is found in two areas of the cytoplasm. They are dispersed in the cytoplasm, and several are connected to the endoplasmic reticulum. When connected to the ER, they are called a rough endoplasmic reticulum. Free and bound ribosomes are very similar in structure and are associated with protein synthesis. About 37 to 62% of RNA consists of proteins.

 

Prokaryotes have 70S ribosomes, respectively subunits containing a small 30S subunit and a larger 50S subunit. Eukaryotes have 80S ribosomes, respectively containing small (40S) and significant (60S) subunits. Ribosomes observed in chloroplasts of eukaryotes mitochondria consist of large and small subunits composed of proteins inside the 70S particle. Share the structure of the center, which is very similar to all ribosomes despite changes in its size.

 

Ribosomes Function

 

RNA is distributed in various tertiary structures. RNA in larger ribosomes undergoes numerous continuous infusions because they form loops off the center of the structure without disturbing or altering it. The contrast between these eukaryotes and bacteria is used to produce antibiotics that can crush a bacterial disease without damaging human cells.

 


 

 Other Ribosomes function

As mentioned, the function of ribosomes is to create proteins. This process involves transforming our genetic information into proteins as we move from DNA to RNA and finally into protein. We need to consider a few issues in this process. The first of these is the ribosome, which acts as a machine to connect different parts.

 

Then we have matrix RNA (mRNA), which are RNA strands that contain instructions for building a specific protein. This instruction is translated from DNA, where all protein instructions are stored. Then we have RNA transfer (tRNA), which are RNA strands that carry specific amino acids (building blocks of proteins) to match what’s in the mRNA.

 

The ribosome acts as an assembly line and begins to “read” the mRNA, find the corresponding tRNA and attach the amino acid to the binding site. Then it reads the next part of the mRNA and finds the corresponding tRNA and joins the amino acid to the existing amino acid. This process continues until the entire tRNA is read and the initial protein is created.

 

The protein, still unfinished, is removed from the ribosome and sent to the cytoplasm, in the prokaryotic or Golgi in eukaryotes, to completion. When finished, they can start their function.

 

Ribosomes Function

 

Rybosom then begins another round of protein synthesis when it acquires another tRNA. This process continues and is regulated based on what protein the cell needs and how much the protein needs.

 

This is the main reason why ribosomes are found in all living cells: everything needs proteins to function. That’s why they’re very similar between different cells.

 

 

Origin of ribosomes

Researchers estimate that the ribosome is about 3.8 billion years old. This is the age that precedes most forms of life. Given the similarity of ribosomes to all living cells, it makes sense for the ribosome to come from a common ancestor between different domains of life.

 

Researchers analyzed many ribosome samples from different species and looked for a common core deep within the ribosomal structure and identified the oldest parts of the ribosome that were found over 3 billion years.

 

Loren Williams, the lead researcher at the Georgia Technology Center for Ribosome Adaptation and Evolution of the NASA Institute of Astrobiology, noted that the ribosomes were like tree trunks: they had rings that indicated their age, where the central ring, deep in the trunk, represented the oldest part of the tree.

 

Initially, the ribosome carries only RNA and no protein, because life at that time did not use proteins. Because RNA strands become large, they form secondary structures that can develop functions. Rybosom was probably in a similar situation. Over time, with the development of protein, ribosomes became more complex and adapted more functions until they became a specialized machine for protein synthesis as it is today.




George Fox, from the University of Houston, notes that the ribosome transition from RNA to DNA and protein compound resulted from the ability of RNA to form peptides of increasing complexity. What began as a process of transforming DNA into RNA became so complex that it made it possible to create other compounds from this information that turned out to be proteins.

Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum Functions

The smooth endoplasmic or smooth ER reticulum is an organelle that occurs both in animal cells and in plant cells. The organelle is a subunit in a cell that has a specialized function. The main function of a smooth ER is the production of cellular products such as hormones and lipids.

 

It also distributes these products throughout the entire cell and places in the body. Smooth ER also controls and liberate calcium ions and processes toxins.


It is described as “smooth” to distinguish it from a rough ER that has ribosomes to synthesize proteins on its surface. Each organelle in the cell cytoplasm is responsible for the performance of a specific function. Rough and smooth ER produce different products for the cell.

 

 

Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum function

The surface of the rough endoplasmic reticulum (often abbreviated as RER or Rough ER) (also called the granular endoplasmic reticulum) is planted with protein-producing ribosomes, which gives it a “rough” appearance (hence its name).

 

The translocation of the ribosome on the rough endoplasmic reticulum is the translocon. However, ribosomes are not a stable part of the organelle structure because they are constantly bound and released from the membrane.

 

Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum Function
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum Function

 

A ribosome only binds to RER when a specific protein-nucleic acid complex is formed in the cytosol. This special complex arises when the free ribosome begins to translate the mRNA of the protein to be secreted.  The first polymerized 5-30 amino acids encode a signal peptide.

 

A molecular message recognized and bound by a signal recognition (SRP) particle. The translation stops and the ribosome complex binds to the ER translocon, where the translation continues with the nascent (new) light-forming RER and/or membrane.

 

The protein is processed in the ER light by an enzyme (signal peptidase) that removes the signal peptide. Ribosomes at this point can be released back into the cytosol; however, non-translational ribosomes are also known to remain associated with translocon.

 

 

Rough endoplasmic reticulum structure

The major structure of the endoplasmic reticulum is a matrix of membranes called cisternae. These pouch-like structures are held together by the cytoskeleton. A phospholipid membrane includes a storage space (or light) that is continuous in the perinuclear space but separated from the cytosol. The functions of the endoplasmic reticulum can be summarized as the synthesis and export of membrane proteins and lipids, but it differs between ER and cell type and cell function.

 

Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum Function

 

The amount of both rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum in the cell may slowly change from one type to another, depending on the changing metabolic activities of the cell. The transformation may involve the deposition of new proteins in the membrane as well as structural changes. Changes in protein content can occur without noticeable structural changes.




The membrane of the rough endoplasmic reticulum

The membrane of the rough endoplasmic reticulum forms large double-membrane sheets that are located nearby and are continuous with the outer layer of the nuclear envelope. Double diaphragm plates are stacked and joined by several lefts or right-turn screws, the so-called Terasaki ramps, which form a structure resembling a multi-story car park.

 

Although there is no constant membrane betwixt the endoplasmic reticulum. The Golgi apparatus, membrane-bound transport vesicles transport proteins between these two compartments. The bubbles are surrounded by coating proteins called COPI and COPII. COPII excels in the vesicles in the Golgi apparatus, and COPI means that they return to the rough endoplasmic reticulum.

 

The rough endoplasmic reticulum works with the Golgi complex to direct new proteins to their correct target sites. The second mode of transport from the endoplasmic reticulum includes areas called membrane contact sites in which the membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum and other organelles are closely related, authorize, the relocate of lipids and other small molecules.