At the entrance to the stomach, there is a valve, which is a ring of muscles called the lower esophageal sphincter (LES). Usually LES closes as soon as food passes through them. If LES does not close completely or if it opens too often, the acid produced by your stomach may move to the esophagus.


Acid Reflux can cause symptoms such as burning chest pain called heartburn. If the symptoms of acid reflux occur more than twice a week, there is an Acid Reflux disease, also referred to as gastro-oesophageal reflux (GERD).


What causes Acid Reflux Disease?

One of the common causes of gastroesophageal reflux disease is a stomach disorder called an oesophageal hernia. This happens when the upper part of the stomach and LES moves over the diaphragm, the muscle that separates the stomach from the chest.


Normally, the diaphragm helps to keep the acid in our stomach. But if you have a hiatal hernia, the acid can move into the esophagus and cause symptoms of the disease.

These are other common risk factors for GERD,

Eating large meals or lying straight after a meal,

Overweight or obesity,


Eating a heavy meal and lying on your back or bending over your waist,

Snacks are approaching falling asleep,

Consuming certain foods such as citrus, tomatoes, chocolate, mint, garlic,

onions or spicy or greasy foods,


Drinking certain beverages such as alcohol, soda, coffee or tea,

Smoking, Be pregnant,

Taking aspirin, ibuprofen, some muscle relaxants or medicines for blood pressure



What are the symptoms of Acid Reflux Disease?

Typical symptoms

Heartburn: burning pain or discomfort that can move from the stomach to the stomach or chest, and even to the throat.

acidic or bitter acid tasting in the throat or mouth

flatulence, Bloody or black stools or bloody vomiting

Dysphagia – narrowing of the esophagus, which causes the feeling of food,

getting caught in the throat,

Hiccups that will not give up


Losing weight for no known reason

Wheezing, dry cough, hoarseness or chronic pharyngitis

 Other causes of Acid Reflux

Acid reflux occurs when a part of the acid contained in the stomach flows into the esophagus, which moves the food out of the mouth. Despite the name, heartburn has nothing to do with the heart.


The stomach contains hydrochloric acid, a strong acid that helps break down food and protect against pathogens, such as bacteria.


The stomach lining is specially adapted for the protection against strong acid, but the esophagus is not protected.


The muscular ring, the gastroesophageal sphincter, usually acts as a valve that lets food into the stomach but does not return to the esophagus. When this valve fails and the stomach contents are returned to the esophagus, symptoms of acid reflux such as heartburn are experienced.



Diet Acid Reflux

caffeine alcohol,

high consumption of table salt,

the diet low in dietary fiber,

eat large meals,

lying within 2 to 3 hours after eating a meal,

consumption of chocolate, carbonated drinks, and sour juices,

Recent research suggests that dietary choices can be just as effective as using proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) to treat acid reflux.



Treatment Acid Reflux

IPP, including omeprazole, rabeprazole, and esomeprazole,

H2 blockers, including cimetidine, ranitidine, and famotidine,

Non-prescription medicines, such as antacids that can be bought online,

Alginate medicines, including Gaviscon,



The main treatments for people who repeatedly experience acid reflux in GERD are PPIs or H2 blockers, both of which are drugs,

PPI and H2 blockers reduce acid production and reduce the risk of damage caused by reflux,


These drugs are generally safe and effective, but as with any prescription drug, they are not suitable for all people with reflux disease and can cause side effects. For example, they can cause problems with the absorption of nutrients. This can lead to malnutrition.